Vashona

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Mhuri yeMashona. Ambuya (vagere kuruboshwe). Amai (vakamira kumashure kweVana (vagere pasi, pamberi paamai wavo))
Vanhu vese
16.6 mazanazana (2019)
Makaranga 8.5 mazanazana (miriyoni)
Mazezuru 5.2 mazanazana (miriyoni)
Mandau 2.4 mazanazana (miriyoni)
Makorekore 1.7 mazanazana (miriyoni)
Samanyika 1.3 mazanazana (miriyoni)
Dzimwe nyika dzineMashona
Zimbabwe 12 mazanazana (2019)
Mozambiki 153,000
Bhotswana 56,000
South Africa ~2 mazanazana (2019)
Zambia 30,200
United Kingdom 500,000 (2011)
Mitauro Sitandadhi Shona, Chirungu, Chikaranga, Chizezuru, Chikorekore, Chimanyika, Chindau
Rudaviro Chikristu, Chidaviro cheVashona, Majudha
Madzinza anehukama huri pedyo Varemba, Vakalanga; Vavhenda ne Vamwe Vabantu
Zarura Tafura
Munhu Mushona
Vanhu Mashona
Mutauro Chishona
Nyika Mashonaland

Vashona kana Mashona vanhu vedzinza reBantu rinowanikwa kuChamhembe cheAfurika kunyanya Zimbabwe (kwavanoumba 85% yehuwandu hwevanhu). Vashona vanowanikwa muAfrika, Pakati peAfrika (Central Africa), kumambvazuva kweAfurika (Eastern Africa) nekuChamhembe cheAfurika, uye vamwe vashoma vanogara kuMozambiki, Bhotswana, Zambia neSouth Africa.

Vane mhuri shanu dzakakura, uye vari pedyo nemamwe mapoka ane tsika nemitauro yakafanana. Madzinza echiShona anonzi: Vazezuru, Vamanyika, Vakorekore, Vandau neVakaranga. Madzinza echiShona akazvarwa kubva kuMakalanga, munguva yekupesana kwakaitika pakuwa kweUmambo hweMapungubwe, uye Vashona vakange vasina zita rekunzi Vashona kusvika kuma1900s pavaka pihwa zita naClement Doke. Pamusoro pezvo, madzinza akasimbiswa nekuda kwegara mumatunhu akasiyana uye nekukanganiswa nemamwe marudzi eBantu aiuya achigara pakati pavo. Vanhu vechiShona vakasiyana asi vanokwanisa kunzwisisana kana vachitauro sezvinoita vanhu vechiNguni (Madebele neMazulu, kana Maxhosa neMaswati). Zvakanaka kuzivisana kuti kunyangwe vamwe vachinzwisisana, pane mashoko uye matauriro akasiyana, nekuda kwemanyorerwo; Chikalanga (chinoshandisa 'L' panoshandiswa 'R' uye chinoshandisa 'b' panoshandiswa 'v' muShona uye 'zw' panoiswa 'zv').

Madzinza echiShona ane hukama huri pedyo neVavhenda (Venda), Vakalanga (Bakalanga), Vabarwe (Vasena), Vadoma neVatonga. Zviripachena munhoroondo yakagovaniswa yeMapungubwe kana Umambo hweZimbabwe uye nekutenda muna Mwari (Shona), Nwali (Venda) naMwali (Kalanga). Uye vanogovana nhoroondo neVashangani neVatsonga nekuda kwekugara panzvimbo imwechete.

Muchinyakare vanhu vairoora vanhu vemamwe madzinza, uye paipinda rimwe dzinza vaizama kutonga rimwe, sezvakaita Vazulu => Vandebele kuVashona. Vamwe Vashona mukuratidzika mavo vane maziso akavhara (epicanthal folds/monolids), nekuda kweMakhoisan, nekuti pakapinda nekugara kweMashona muZimbabwe nzvimbo yacho yakange yakagarwa neVakhoisan kudhara. Vamwe Vakhoisan vakabva vamwe vakagara (vachirimo munyika yeZimbabwe nhasi), vakasara pakati pavo vamwe vakaroorana neVashona (intermariage), zvakakonzera kuti mamwe Mashona vataridzike seVakhoisan nekuti maziso akavhara ijini rinotonga kwete kutongwa. (Epicanthal folds are a dominant gene not recessive). Izvi zvinoratidzika kuMaNguni emuSouth Africa (zulu, xhosa etc.) futi, asi vakatora zvinodarika mataridziko chete nekuti vakasanganisa kudzvanya kweMakhoisan mumutauro wavo.

Vambo reZita[chinja | edit source]

VaShona

KuVashona iro zita ravo rekuti 'Shona' harina chimwe chirevo kunze kwekuti izita remadzinza ravo.

Indiya[chinja | edit source]

Ikozvino kugadzirisa iko chaiko mabviro ezita rakapihwa dzinza reBantu iri; shoko rekuti Shona rakapihwa kurudzi neavo vari veIndiya. Zita rakapihwa nekuda kwehukama hwaive nevanhu vekwaMutapa nepasi rose, vaive vatengesi vezvinhu zvakawanda uye pakati pezvinhu izvi, zvishandiso nemamineral aive ndarama (kana goridhe). MuChihindi shoko rekuti ndarama rinonzi 'sona', uye kuGujariti inozivikanwawo sekuti 'sona' kana 'sonu', muChisanis'kiriti (Sanskirit) shoko rekuti 'sonu' rinoreva 'akanaka'. Shoko rakatorwa pashoko rePunjabhi rekuti "Sohna" zvinoreva kuti "akanaka". Humambo hwese hweMutapa hwaizivikanwa se "Nyika yeSona" kana kuti "Sonaland". Nekuda kwekusiyana kwemazwi uye kushanduka kwemitauro shoko rekuti wa rakazopedzisira ravhiringidzwa kuti 'Shona' izvi zvaigona kunge zvakabatsirwa nevaNguni neshoko ravo rekuti 'tshona'.[1]

Pamusoro pezvo, nekuda kwehuori uhu shoko rekuti Sonaland rakava Shonaland, uye zita revanhu rakashandurwa kubva kuSona kuenda ku 'Shona' seboka. Zita iri raishandisirwa vanhu veHumambo hweMutapa hwese.[1]

VaNguni[chinja | edit source]

Paraishandiswa shoko rekuti "Shona" munguva yezana remakore 19 (19th century), Mfecane (pamwe namambo weMaNdebele Mzilikazi), raishandiswa sechibhende kuvanhu vasiri vechiNguni; pakange pasina kuzivikanwa kwakafanana nemadzinza nevanhu vanoumba chiShona chemazuva ano.

Iro shoko rekuti Shona rakabva kune vaNguni, zvichibva pashoko rekuti 'tshona' rinoreva 'kugadzika' kana 'kunyusa' (to set), uye rinowanzoshandiswa mumashoko akaita senge 'tshona malanga' kana 'tshona ilanga' mumituaro yeChinguni. Asi ichi hachisi chokwadi chakakwana, sezvo shoko rekuti Shona rakapihwa vanhu sezita nevanhu vekuIndiya, asi Manguni vakavadudzira saizvozvo. Asi nekuti vaiti tshona shoko vakvhiringidza shoko rakapihwa neMaindiya. Asi vakachengeta kushandiswa kwaro sezita remadunhurirwa rinonamira.

Clement Doke[chinja | edit source]

Muma 1900s, iro shoko rekuti Shona, kunyangwe rakasikwa nevanhu vakasiyana, pekupedzisira rakatanga kushandiswa rikadhindwa pavanhu vese nekuda kwekufanana kwemitauro yavo naiye anonzi Clement Doke. Nekuita izvi akavhiringidza vanhu uye vakaverengerwa mutsika yeZezuru, zvichikonzera kutsamwa uye kupesana pakati pevanhu pachavo. Pamusoro pezvo, mamwe madzinza muZimbabwe akanzwa kusunganidzwa nekuda kwehuwandu hwevanhu vanonzi "Shona". "Vashona" vakaita sevaVhenda (Venda), vakagadzirwa kubva kuvanhu vechiKalanga, girama iri pakati pemitauro yakafanana uye vanogoverana nhoroondo, zvisinei kazhinji kazhinji vanhu vanopokana vachitenda kuti zvivakwa ndezvavo kwete rimwe dzinza kana chokwadi chiripo, iyo nhoroondo ndeyavo vese, kunyangwe hazvo zvemazuva ano zvakasarudzika.

.....By grouping the languages and tribes, Clement confused the people and they were assimilated into Zezuru culture, creating anger and division among the people themselves. Additionally, other tribes in Zimbabwe felt united against (or "ganged-up on") due to the large population of the so-called "Shona". The "Shona" like the Vhenda (Venda), developed from the Kalanga people, the grammar between the languages is similar and they even share history, however often times people argue believing that monuments belong to them and not another tribe when the fact is, the history is all of theirs, despite modern individuality. A lot of people show a disregard for Shona languages, often disrespecting speakers when they say they want to regarded as speakers of an independent language and not a dialect. Additionally, other shona languages are often not regarded among peers due to them not sounding like 'zezuru', example the Ndau speakers are oftne accused of speaking 'broken shona', while the rest of the country (Zimbabwe) despises the Shona because they feel the language is being forced upon them. There is also a lack of materials to learn other Shona languages which are still not regarded as individual languages)...Manyika, Karanga, Korekore, Ndau...

Marudzi neHuwandu[chinja | edit source]

Mitauro[chinja | edit source]

Nyika yeZimbabwe pamepu yeAfrica.
Nyika yeZimbabwe nematunhu yayo.

Vashona vakakamurwa kuva matavi makuru matanhatu, anoenderera sezvakanyorwa pazasi, uye vanotaura Chishona chinozivikanwa nezita rekuti Chivanhu pakati pavo. Chivanhu chemazuvano chinosanganisa mitauro yakasiyana yeVashona, ndosaka chichinzi Chisitandadhi Shona, kunze kwemitauro yeVashona Chisitandadhi Shona chinosanganisa mitauro irimu Zimbabwe uye nemashoko anobva kuChirungu. Izvi zvakanaka nekuti zvinobvumira kuti zvinoreva kuti mutauro wechi shona urikuchinja nenguva semitauro inofanirwa, inoitendera kuti ishandiswe zuva nezuva.

Mabhii eStandard Shona akanyorwa sezviri pazasi:

Zvivaramwana

a e i o u

Zvinzvanyira zvimwe:

b ch d f g h j k m n n' p r s s' t v w y z

Zvinvanyira zviviri

bh bv bw chw dh dy dz gw hw kw mb mh mv mw nd ng nh nj nw ny nz pw pf sh sv sw ts tw ty vh zh zv zw

Zvinzvanyira zvitatu:

dzv dzw mbw ndw ngw nhw njw nyw nzv nzw shw tsv tsw vhw zhw

Kunyangwe Chishona chisina ibhii rekuti 'L' ikozvino riri kuunzwa nekushandiswa mumutauro nekuda kwemashoko eChirungu ne mamwe maBantu se

Dhali (darling)

Marudzi[chinja | edit source]

Makaranga[chinja | edit source]

Makaranga vanotora chikamu chinosvika makumi maviri nezviviri muzana yevagari vemuZimbabwe, yakaparadzirwa kumaodzanyemba pakati peZimbabwe. Dzimwe nzvimbo dzavanogara: Masvingo, Midlands Province (Mberengwa districts neZvishavane districts). Huwandu weVakaranga hwuno svika ku 8.5 mazanazana. Mutauro wavo unonzi Chikaranga unemitauronyina yakasina:

Mitauronyina yeChikaranga Mhuri yemutauro


Bazezuru

Vazezuru kana Mazezuru vanhu veDzinza rechiShona vanotaura Chizezuru uye vanotora 18% yehuwandu hweMazezuru unosvika 5.2 mazanazana. Vanotauro Chizezuru, mutauro wavo ndiwo unonyanya kutaurwa muZimbabwe uye neruzhinji rwevamwe Vashona, pamusoro pezvo ndiwo mutauro unoshandiswa kugadzira Sitandadhi Shona. Vazezuru vanowanikwa kuZimbabwe kwavanogara kuMashonaland East neCentral Zimbabwe kudhuze neHarare, muMozambiki, Bhotswana neChamhembe cheAfrika.

Mitauronyina yeChizezuru:
  • Shawasha, Gova, Mbire, Tsunga
  • Kachikwakwa, Harava, Nohwe, Njanja, Nobvu
  • Kwazvimba (Zimba)
Mhuri yemutauro

Samanyika[chinja | edit source]

Vamanyika kana Samanyika vanhu veDzinza rechiShona vanotaura Chimanyika uye vanotora 13% huwandu hweVashona. Huwandu hweVamanyika hwuno svika 1.3 mazanazana (2000-2006). Vanowanikwa kuManicaland eZimbabwe.

Mitauronyina yeChizezuru:
  • Chibocha
  • Chiungwe
  • Tewe (Chiute)
Mhuri yemutauro

Makorekore[chinja | edit source]

Makorekore kana Vakorekore vanhu veDzinza rechiShona vanotaura Chikorekore uye vanotora 12% yehuwandu hweVashona. Huwandu hweVakorekore hwuno svika 1.7 mazanazana, munyika yeZimbabwe vanowanikwa ku:

  • Northern Zimbabwe
  • Mvurwi Bindura
  • Mt Darwin
  • Guruve
  • Chiweshe
  • Centenary .
Mitauro yeChindau:
  • Gova, Tande, Tavara,
  • Nyongwe, Pfunde, Shan Gwe
Mhuri yemutauro

Mandau[chinja | edit source]

Vandau kana Mandau vanhu veDzinza rechiShona vanotaura Chindau uye vanotora 3% yehuwandu hweVashona kunogoverwa, huwandu hweMandau hwunosvika ku 2.4 mazanazana. Vanowanikwa kuZimbabwe nekuMozambiki.

Mitauro yeChindau:
  • Shanga
  • Danda
Mhuri yemutauro

Varozvi[chinja | edit source]

Varozvi kana Varozwi vanhu veDzinza rechiShona vanotaura mitauro dzechiShona, uye vanotora 9% yehuwandu hweVashona uye vakasanganiswa nemamwe marudzi.

Huwandu hweVanhu[chinja | edit source]

Zvinoenderana ne "Rurimi rweMunyika", pane vanhu zviuru gumi nezviviri nemazana matanhatu ane mazana mapfumbamwe nemakumi matanhatu nemazana mitauro vanotaura Shona nemutauro wayo.[2]

Vashandisi vemitauro yekutanga:

  • 10,763,100

Vanoshandisa mutauro wechipiri:

  • 1,800,000

Mutauro wechivanhu cheVashona ndiChishona. Nekuda kwehukama hwenhoroondo yekoroni, mitauro yepamutemo inoshandiswa nenyika dzakasiyana siyana. Mhuri yemutauro we Shona inorondedzerwa se:[2]

  • Niger-Congo language family (Niger-Congo)
    • Atlantic-Congo (Atlantic-Congo)
      • Walter - language branch of the Congo (Volta-Congo)
        • Benue-Congo (Benue-Congo)
          • Class Bantu languages (Bantoid)
            • South class Bantu languages (Southern Bantoid)
              • Bantu languages (Narrow Bantu)
                • Central Narrow Bantu
                  • Zone S
                    • Shona (Shona)
                      • Karanga dialect
                      • Zezuru dialect
                      • Korekore dialect
                      • Manyika dialect
                      • Ndau dialect
                      • Hwesa

Nhoroondo[chinja | edit source]

Pakati pezana ramakore regumi nematatu, bazi revanhu vechiBantu vaive munzira yekuenda kumaodzanyemba vakabatanidzwa muZimbabwe, uye vakagovaniswa munzvimbo yemupata pakati penzizi dzeZambezi neLimpopo, kureva Kalanga wedzinza reVashona. Zvino, mamwe matavi erudzi rweVashona, sevanhu veRozvi (Rozwi) nevaKorekore, vakapinda mumwe mushure meumwe, uye zvishoma nezvishoma vakawedzera kubva pakati pebani reZimbabwe kusvika kumativi ese. Pakati pezana ramakore regumi nesere, madzinza eVaShona saSamanyika neMandau vakapindawo munzvimbo iyi.

Kubva muzana ramakore regumi nematatu kusvika gumi nemanomwe, vaKalanga vakagadza iro rakakurumbira reHumambo hwaMutapa muZimbabwe, nzvimbo yavo yakasvika kumaodzanyemba kweMozambiki nekuchamhembe kwakadziva kumabvazuva kweBotswana pakasimba kwazvo. Nyika yakakamurwa kuva matunhu akati wandei, inotongwa nemakurukota amambo emasimba, uye vanhu vacho vanobhadhara mutero nenzombe. Imba yezvinocherwa mumatongo yakawana nzvimbo dzinopfuura mazana maviri dzetsika nemagariro muZimbabwe, kusanganisira matongo akakurumbira eHukuru hweDzimbadzamabwe, achiratidza vanhu vechiShona vekare budiriro. Vashona vairarama nekurima nekuchengeta zvipfuyo panguva iyoyo, uye vaive nehunyanzvi hwekugadzira simbi uye ndarama arukemi (gold alchemy).

17th century, vanhu vakatanga kukura Rozvi, kubva paMonomatapa umambo, kumisikidza Humambo hweRozvi, yaitonga nzvimbo zhinji yeZimbabwe. Vakoroni veBritani vakapinda vakaba nyika muna 1889 ndokutumidza nyika "Southern Rhodesia." Nhamba huru yevhu rakaorera rakapambwa, uye maShona vakaiswa mutirongo munzvimbo isina mvura yerenje. Kusvikira pakati pezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri, kusimudzira kwavo hupfumi uye tsika kwaive kuchinonoka. Kubva 1896, vanhu vechiShona vakatanga mhirizhonga dzakawanda dzekurwisa Britain. Kubva kuma1960, Zimbabwe yakaumba masangano akasiyana siyana ezvematongerwo enyika kuti vatange kurwira zvombo vachirwisa hutongi hwevachena. "Zimbabwe African National Union" inoumbwa nevaShona seboka guru. Pakazosvika 1980, vaShona vaive vakunda rusununguko rweZimbabwe pamwe nevanhu vemarudzi ese emunyika.

Madzimambo eVashona[chinja | edit source]

Mwene weMutapa Nyatsimba Mutota (?)


Madzimambo eMutapa[3][chinja | edit source]

Vanhu vakakosha[chinja | edit source]

Rudaviro[chinja | edit source]

Chidaviro cheChivanhu[chinja | edit source]

Chidaviro (Rudaviro) kana Chitendero cheVashona mubatanidzwa wekunamata Mwari mumwechete uye kunamatwa kwemadzitateguru. Mwari ndiye musiki, ane masimbaose asi zvakare ari kure; Madzitateguru nemimwe midzimu inoshanda sevamiririri pakati paMwari nevanhu.[4][5]

Pamusoro pehutongi hwemweya kune Mhondoro, mweya yevakafa vemhuri dzakafa uye madzimambo anotarisa mhuri dzese, matunhu, kana vanhu vechiShona zvachose. Kaguvi naNehanda, avo vakakurudzira Vashona kuti vabatane nekupandukira kukoroni vaive masvikiro emhondoro ane simba.[4][6]

Vadzimu (kana mudzimu) ndivo madzitateguru emhuri dzakasarudzika, uye vanoramba vachiripo chero bedzi vaine vana vapenyu vekuvarangarira nekuvakudza. Mweya wemunhu achangobva mukufa hauite mudzimu kudzamara kurova guva mhemberero, inowanzoitwa gore rimwe chete mushure mekufa, apo hama dzinorarama dzinokoka mweya kuti udzokere kumhuri uye uvatarise semadzitateguru. Ivo vanofa vasina vana kana vadiki kwazvo havagone kuva vadzimu nekuti ivo havana vana chaivo. Panzvimbo iyoyo vanova mweya inodzungaira inonzi mashavi.[4][6]

Yese mweya iyi inotaurirana nevanhu kuburikidza nemasvikiro emweya, anonzi svikiro. Svikiro rega rega rinogona kubatwa nemweya mumwechete, uye rinotora masimba nehukama hwemweya. Semuenzaniso, madzimambo echiShona vaigarotorwa semasvikiro ewa Mwari pachake.[4][6]

Mwari[chinja | edit source]

Mashona vanovimba kuti pakutanga paive naMwari, uye Mwari chete pachake. Vashona vanotenda kuti Mwari ndiMwari vane rudo, Mwari vane moyo munyoro, Mwari vakanaka uye Mwari vane rupo pakati pezvimwe zvinhu.[7] Zvakanaka kuzivisana kuti Mashona vanoti Mwari havazi murume kana mukadzi, asi munguva ino yatirimo Mwari anotendwa kunge murume, achiwanzo kudanwa kuti Baba kana Baba vedu.[7][8][5]

Pamusoro pezvo, Vashona vanotenda kuti Mwari ndiye musiki wezvinhu zvese, vachigara kumudana vachimuti Musikazvese (Chirungu: Creator of all) pakati pemamwe mazita avanomudeedza navo. Mamwe aMwari kubva kuMashona anonzi; Musiki; Musikavanhu, Nyadenga uye Tenzi.[7]

|| Mazita aMwari ese: [7]

Chisi[chinja | edit source]

Zuva reChisi (mazuvano): China (Chirungu: Thursday), asi rinogona kuitwa pazuva rinokwanisa nevanhu, vamwe vanoita Chisi musi weMugovera (Chirungu: Saturday).

Chisi izuva rimwe revhiki 'rezororo' kana sabata reMashona, vanhu havashande, kana kurima minda yavo. Hapana basa rinoitwa pamusi weChisi.[9][10] Zuva rakatarwa muvhiki, mwedzi kana gore pane iro basa kunyanya muminda raisafanira kuitwa. Yakatumidzwa zvakare Mahakurimwe zvichireva kuti hapana basa muminda raifanira kuitwa pazuva iri.[10] Manejimendi yenguva haina kusiirwa kune vanhu. Chiremera chepakati chaive nevamwe vatauri pamusoro pekuti vanhu vangashandisa sei nguva. Sosaiti pane kuzvisarudzira zvakakosha. Izvi zvaifanirwa kurukwa muchitendero chevanhu kuti vanhu varemekedze mirairo yechisi.[10]

Ngano (mythology)[chinja | edit source]

Kusikwa kwezvinhu[chinja | edit source]
Mwedzi nachindeya Hweva.
Chindeya Hweva (Venus)
Mwedzi

Hweva naMwedzi[chinja | edit source]

Hweva chindeya chinonzi venus muChirungu. Munyaya yekusikwa yeVashona Hweva naMwedzi ndivo "vanhu" vanotora center stage.[11]

Pakutanga, Mwari akasika Mwedzi mudziva rakadzika rinowanzonzi Dzivaguru. Mwedzi akakumbira kugara pasi kwete kuva mumvura. Mwari ari Mwari ane nyasha, uye achida zvaakasika akabvumira kuti Mwedzi agare pasi. Nekudaro, paakangove pasi Mwedzi akasurukirwa, kunyangwe Mwari vakazviona izvi. Mwari pavakaona kusurukirwa kwaMwedzi, vakafunga zvakange zvisina kunaka kuti ave ari ega. Saka Mwari vakatora Hweva (nyenyedzi yekuseni) kubva mudenga vakamutumira pasi kunaMwedzi. Ipapo Hweva akazove mukadzi waMwedzi, asi Mwari vakayambira Mwedzi kuti mushure memakore maviri aifanira kuzomudzosera kudenga. Mwedzi akanzwisisa ndokubvuma. Saka iye naHweva vakagara vese makore maviri, uye panguva iyi Hweva akabereka zvese zvinomera zveRinopasi. Pasina nguva, makore maviri akasvika pakupera uye Mwedzi aifanhira kudzosa Hweva kudzokera kudenga. Mwedzi akazaze kuzviita, asi akadzosa mukadzi wake kudenga sezvaakange arairwa naMwari. Hweva paakange aenda Mwedzi akatanga kunzwa kusurukirwa zvekare, uyezve Mwari akanzwa kusuruvara nekuda kwake. Kusuruvara kwaMwedzi kwakakurudzira Mwari kuti vatore kubva mudenga nekutumira Vhenekeratsvimborume (nyenyedzi yemanheru) paRinopasi kuti ave naMwedzi. Uye zvakare zvakare Mwari akaudza Mwedzi kuti achamudzosera kudenga mushure memakore maviri. Mwedzi akabvuma, saka Vhenekeratsvimborume akagara naye. NaMwedzi Vhenekeratsvimborume akazvara, kutanga kuzvirimwa zvinomera zvipuka neshiri, uye akazvara futi vakomana nevasikana. Pakupedzisira, makore maviri akauya, uye Mwari akaudza Mwedzi kuti adzose Vheneka kudenga zvekare. Mwedzi akaramba. Pazuva rakatevera racho, Vheneka akazvara nyama dzinodya dzimwe; se shumba pamwe chete nezvinyavada nezvimwe wo zvikara.

Njuzu[chinja | edit source]

Njuzu mweya wemvura unova nebasa rekufundisa N'anga. Dzainzi dzinopa vanhu "ruzivo" kana ruzivo rwemishonga kare kare.[12][13]

Njuzu sechisiko chaMwari

  • Vashona vanochengetedza kuti njuzu yakasikwa naMwari kungofanana nechimwe chisikwa. Zvinoenderana nekutenda uku Mwari vakasika njuzu pamwechete nezvimwe zvisikwa zvemumvura nevanhu pasi pano (vanhu varipanyika) uye izvo zvisikwa zviri pasi penyika (varipasi).[12][13]

Midzimu yengoma yaibata dzimwe maZimbabweans akazoita njuzu mweya masvikiro. Mamwe emabasa emasvikiro emumvura kugadzira mvura uye kuunganidza madzishe uye nharaunda kuchengetedza zvakasikwa nharaunda. Masvikiro emvura (majukwa) aive asiri iwo chete inongotenderwa kugadzira-mvura asi kuchengetedza iyo nharaunda yese yakasikwa.[13]

Nzanga neTsika[chinja | edit source]

Kuroora[chinja | edit source]

Kuroora Vakadzi vakawanda (Polygny)[chinja | edit source]

Mabhenefiti eVarume[chinja | edit source]

Mumagariro eVashona varume vaikwanisa kuroora vakadzi vakawanda.[14] Hondo padzakange dzichiri dzakajairika, madzinza kana mapoka emadzinza akakunda hondo idzi, pakati pezvimwe zvinhu, vaive nemugove wezviwanikwa pakati pevanhu wakanaka. Saka kuitira vane huwandu hwakakwana hwevashandi vekudzivirira ndima, zvaikurudzirwa nenzanga kuti varume vese vakakura kuti varoore vakadzi vakawanda sezvavaikwanisa nekuita vana vazhinji.[15]

Kuvarume, kuroora vakadzi vakawanda zvakange zvakavanakira, nekuti zvaiita kuti mabasa ave nyore. Vadzimai nevana vasipihwa ndima dzavo dzemabasa adiwa kuitwa mumapurazi mashandiro akaita se:[15]

  • kurima
  • kudyara,
  • kusakura,
  • kukohwa
  • kutarisa zvipfuyo nezvimwe wo

Nekuda kwezvinhu zvakadai vanhu vairumbidza kuroora vakadzi vazhinji. Sezvo zvinowanzo kudhura kuva mumba ine vakadzi vakawanda, hupfumi hwemurume hwaiyerwa nenhamba yevakadzi yaaive nayo, saka murume aive nevakadzi vakawanda aitariswa semunhu akapfuma.[15] Muchokwadi, vamwe vakadzi vaida kuva madzimai evarume vane vakadzi kavawanda nekuda kwekutenda kuti varume vakadaro vaive nepfuma yekuvachengeta vachifara.[15]

Chimutsamapfihwa[chinja | edit source]
  • Kugara nhaka (kwevarume)

Kana murume akafirwa anokwanisa kuroora munin'ina wemukadzi wake akashaya kana kunyange muzukuru wemukadzi wake akashaya. Semuenzaniso, munin'ina wemukadzi mushakabvu anopihwa murume wake kuti amubatsire kuchengeta mhuri. Basa ra chimutsamapfihwa ndere kuona kuti anoenderera mberi nebasa nemabasa ehanzvadzi yake (kana hama) mumhuri.[16]

Vana[chinja | edit source]

Vana vaive vakakosha munyaya yesimba rezvematongerwo enyika. Kazhinji varume vane vana nevazukuru vazhinji vaiwanzo tora nzvimbo dzine simba kupfuura avo vasina. Madzinza uye dzimba dzaive zvidhinha zvekuvakisa nzira yekupinda munyaya yezvematongerwo enyika. Pamusoro pezvo, murume aitarisira wo kuvana vake uye nevazukuru vake kutsigirwa munguva yekurwara, uye makuriro enhamba yevana yaitaridza makuriro etarisiro yekuenderera kwerutsigiro.[15]

Vamwe varume vakapinda muhuwandu mubatanidzwa vaidaro nekuda kwebonde yavaipihwa pakakokwa kondinendi panguva yekuzvitakura nekuyamwisa kwevakadzi. Zvakange zvisinga bvumidzwi kuti murume aite zvepabonde nemukadzi wake panguva yekuyamwisa. Uyezve, iyo nguva yekuyamwisa yaive yakareba, kusvika makore maviri kana matatu. Pakanga pasina mukaka wekugadzira wekuti mwana adye.[15]

Mabhenefiti eVakadzi[chinja | edit source]
File:African women.jpg
Muenzaniso weVakadzi vachibatsira kuita basaMuridzi: Emile Antoine Bayard

Dzimwe nguva kuroora vakadzi vakawanda kwaishandiswa senzira yekudzivirira kurambana. Kana hukama huripo pakati pemurume nemukadzi wake wakaipa nekuda kwehusimbe hwemukadzi kana zvimwe zvikonzero, iye aigona kuchengetwa semukadzi kune imwe mhando yehunhu hwake senge runako, kana hupfumi hwake. Sezvo, mutemo wekupachirikadzi nhaka yaitungamira chikonzero chekuti varume varoore vakadzi vakawanda. Panofa munin'ina wemunhu, nzanga yaitarisira hama yasara kuti itarisire shirikadzi nevana vayo.[15]

Vamwe vakadzi vakafunga kuti paive nezvimwe zvakanakira kupinda muuzhinji mubatanidzwa. Mukumba mukadzi aitarisirwa kutakura mutoro wese wepamba. Nekuda kweizvi, vamwe vakadzi vakaroorwa vakakurudzira varume vavo kuroora mamwe madzimai kuitira kuti vasava navo kutakura mutoro wese wepamba vari vega. Kazhinji vakadzi vaida kushamwaridzana futi. Mumagariro echinyakare zvaisave zvakakodzera kuti murume nemukadzi vagovane zvido zvakafanana uye zviitiko kana kuti ivo vanofanirwa kuve pamwechete kana kuita zvese pamwechete nguva dzese. Mumwe murume aitarisirwa kutsvaga shamwari nevamwe vake, uye mukadzi nevamwe vakadzi. Saka nekuda kwekufambidzana nevamwe vakadzi vakakurudzira varume vavo kuti vaunze mumwe mukadzi mumuwanano wavo. Uye, mutemo wenhaka yechirikadzi yaipa vamwe vakadzi mufaro, nekuti yaivavimbisa rugare, hupfumi nechengetedzo mushure mekufa kwemurume. Pamwe nekuda kweichi chidikanwi chemagariro uye kuchengetedzeka kwehupfumi dzimwe chirikadzi dzakakurudzira hama dzemurume wavo vapenyu kuti vapinde muhukama hwemukadzi wemurume navo.[15][16]

Kuroora[chinja | edit source]

Kuganha[chinja | edit source]

  • Kuzviisa muwanano

Kana mukadzi achizivisa murume waanoshuvira kuroora anotora mukana uyu, anosarudza murume ogona kumuroora. Nzira iyi yekuroora yakasiyana neinowanzo shandiswa yekuti murume anosarudza mukadzi. Pamusoro pezvo, murume anogona kuve asina mukadzi kana kunge akaroorwa. Pachivanhu izvi zvinogamuchirwa pabarika, apo mukadzi aikura uye aifanira kuroora. Kazhinji, varume vaisaramba chikumbiro uye vaitora vakadzi vacho. Pakutora vakadzi, vaibva vabhadhara mari yavo kumhuri yevakadzi kuti vapedzise muchato.[16]

Kutema ugariri[chinja | edit source]

  • Kushandira mukadzi

Nzira iyi inotorwa kana murume asingakwanise kubhadhara roora kuburikidza nekubhadharwa kwemombe dzechivanhu. Kazhinji, nzira iyi inoshandiswa nemhuri dzine hurombo kana nherera. Kutema ugariri inzira yekuroora inobvumidza murume kuroora nekushandira vabereki vemukadzi pakupera kwebasa rake, anobva azokwanisa kutora mudzimai wake. Sarudzo yekutema ugariri inopa nhengo dzakatambura imwe nzira yekuroora kana vasingakwanise kubhadhara kuburikidza netsika yekushandisa mombe.[16]

Kuzvarira[chinja | edit source]

  • Kupikisa mwana kunemunhu

Mukuzvarira zvinoreva kuti vabereki vanopa mwanasikana wavo kuenda kunoroorwa nemunhu akapfuma kana akapfuma kudarika ivo:[16]

  • Mukutsinhana nemombe,
  • Chikafu
  • kana chero zvimwe zvakakosha.

Iyi fomu yemuchato inotangwa nemhuri kana iri pasi pekushushikana kwemari kana kushaya hupfumi. Pakupa mwanasikana wavo kumhuri yakapfuma, ndiyo nzira yekubaira munhu kuti awane mikana iri nani uye kubvisa kushushikana kwemari mukati memba. Muzviitiko zvakawanda, kuzvarira kunoonekwa sedanho rekupedzisira. Iyi fomu ye roora haina kuitwa zvekupokana. Zvaiwanzosangana uye kutaurirana pamusoro pemhuri mwana asati avimbiswa kumhuri yekwatezvara.[16]

Kutizira[chinja | edit source]

  • Kusiya imba uchienda kumba kwemukomana nekuda kwekuva nenhumbu
  • Kana musikana achirambidza kuva nemukomana anogona kutizira

Kutizira itsika yakajairika yemuchato iyo ichiri kuitwa pakati pesangano reVashona. Iyi fomu yemuchato inoitika kana mukadzi abata nhumbu roora isati yabhadharwa kumhuri yake. Pakati pesangano reVashona, musikana asina kuroorwa ane pamuviri haatarisirwe kugara pamba pababa vake. Vashona vaizozvidza mukadzi akazvitakura, asina kuroorwa nekuzvidza uye anoudzwa kuti agare nababa vemwana wake. Nekuda kweizvozvo, munharaunda yemazuva ano, mukadzi ane nhumbu anofanira kuzvimanikidza pamurume ane chekuita kana kutotsvaga mumwe murume anoda kuve nepamuviri, kana mhuri ikatambira vakadzi sevasina kuroorwa uye vane nhumbu.[16][17]

Kukumbira[chinja | edit source]

  • Muchato nekutaurirana

Mukukumbira kana vanhu vanoda kuroorana vafunga kuroora, mhuri dzese dzinoziviswa uye dzinotanga kutaurirana nerubatsiro rwemurevereri. Iyi ndiyo nzira yepamutemo inobvumidza iyo agency yemukadzi, uye mvumo yevabereki vake. Iyi nzira inoita kuti vabereki vechikomba vabhadhare mari yavo vakamirira mhuri yemwenga muchato usati wanzi uri pamutemo. Ichi chimiro chemuchato icho chichiri kuitwa pakati petsika dzechiShona dzazvino. Inoonekwa senzira inogamuchirwa yekuroora.[16][17][18]

Kudanana[chinja | edit source]

  • Izvi zvinoreva kuti vanhu vacharoorana nekuda kwekuva murudo.

Mazuvano vanhu vanodanana (kana kufambidzana) muchihwande uye vanozivisa hukama hwavo kana vaakugadzirira kuroora.[19]

Musenga Bere[chinja | edit source]

  • Kutora mukadzi uchimuendesa kumba kwako

Zvakadaro imwe nzira inozivikanwa uye yepamutemo yekuroora pakati petsika yechiShona yaive ichinzi musenga bere. Tsika iyi ndiyo yekuti murume anotanga kutsvaga musikana waanoda. Nekuona, zvisinei, kuti aisakwanisa kukunda moyo wake kwaari mushure mekuedza kwakawanda, aifanira kutora nzira ine ushingi iyo yaaifanira kuvandira mukadzi uye kumudhonzera kumba kwake. Kana akakwanisa kumuzvuzvurudzira kumba, kunyangwe zvaaishuwira, mukadzi iyeye akabva ave mudzimai wake. Sezvo izvi zvaizivikanwa senzira inoshanda yekuroora, vabereki vemusikana vaisa ramba mari yeroora yaiwanzo tevera kuvandira kwemwanasikana wavo. Tsika iyi haicha shandiswi pakuroora, nekuti vakadzi pari zvino vano chengetedzwa nemitemo yenyika, imhosva kupara nzira yakadai yekuroora. Pari zvino muZimbabwe, muchato unokwanisa chete kana vanhu vese vari vaviri vachipa mvumo yekuroora.[20][21]

Kuripira Ngozi[chinja | edit source]

  • Mubhadharo wemweya wekutsiva

Pakati peVashona kazhinji Kuripira Ngozi itsika inozivikanwa kuti kana nhengo yemhuri ikauraiwa nemunhu wausingazive kana kuti munhu akarova munhu anozivikanwa, ipapo munhu iyeye anofanhira kubhadhara kurasikirwa kweropa nekupa mwanasikana wake kuti aroorwe nemumwe nhengo dzichiripo dzemhuri yemushakabvu. Kana mweya wemufi usati wanyaradzwa nenzira iyi zvinotendwa kuti unozodzoka woita bongozozo mumhuri yemhondi. Pachivanhu, kana mukadzi achinge asarudzwa kuti aite semubhadharo wekurasikirwa kweropa, anotarisirwa kuti asapikisane nesarudzo yevakuru vechirume asi kuti aite saizvozvo.[20]

Roora[chinja | edit source]

Kuti muwane rimwe ruzivo endai ku: Roora

Dzimwe mhuri dzinoda mombe munguva yeroora.

Roora (Chindebele: Lobola). Pakati peVashona, sekumwe kune dzimwe nzanga dzevabereki, mubhadharo unonzi masazo "roora" unotora chinzvimbo chakakosha pakuronga kwekuchinjana nekubatana pakati pemhuri mbiri idzi dzaizodai dzakaunzwa pamwe nevakaroora. Haisi chete iyo masazone inoonekwa semubhadharo wakaitirwa iyo nguva nedambudziko rinotorwa kurera mwanasikana uyo ave kutumirwa kunogara neimwe mhuri, asi inoendesa kodzero dzehukama kumurume uye pakupedzisira kodzero pamusoro pevana vanozvarwa muwanano. Kana mukadzi akazviratidza kuva asingabereki kana kusiya asati abereka vana, hupfumi hwemuroora hunofanhira kudzoserwa. Kunyange hazvo pfuma yemuroora yakakosheswa mukubata muchato, kune zvimwe zvikamu zvakakosha zvemaroora zvinoita mubatanidzwa wemuchato pakati peVashona zvikuru. Pachivanhu, muchato wakaiswa chisimbiso kuburikidza nekubhadharwa rutsambo "kukosha kunoonekwa semari yeroora chaiyo" uye bhidhi (bead) yetambo inonzi chuma. Rutsambo mumazuva ekare akatora chimiro chebadza. Yakanga isiri tsaona chete kuti vakuru vedu vakagarira badza sechinhu chaitsanangura muchato; pakanga paine kukosha kukuru kwekufananidzira mubadza. Sezvakataurwa naMunhamu Pekeshe, apo tezvara vakagamuchira badza, ivo vaisimbisa kubatanidza zera kune kubereka kwevhu, zvinova zvinoita kuti muroora akwanise "kuibva" nekukumbirwa ruoko rwake muwanano.[22]

Chuma[chinja | edit source]

Chuma

Chuma kana 'shambo' inopihwa muwanano uye inopfekwa nemwanasikana anenge achitorwa muwanano, inomirira runako rwake, pamusoro pezvo inotakura zvimiro zvebonde. Mukubvuma uye kupfeka chuma musikana anenge achibvuma pamberi pababa vake kuti anga akagadzirira kuita chikamu chake mukubereka. Kwaivewo kubvuma kwekuve kwake "akaiswa bhero" kune murume. Rutsambo nekudaro, sekupedzisa kwake, yaive hurukuro yekuzvara pakati pababa nemwanasikana.[20]

Madanho eRoora[chinja | edit source]

Danho rekutanga, danho rekuvhura muromo (Chindebele: Isivulamulomo), uko Mukwasha anopihwa mukana wekutaura zvinangwa zvake zvekuroora mudiwa wake mushure mekuisa mari mudengu rakarukwa, uye mhuri yemwenga inotaurira vemhuri yemurume zvavanoda seroora. Zuva rinobva ratarwa, rinotenderwa mapato ese, kuti vasangane zvakare. Panguva yekunyora, mhuri yemuroora (Ndau: makoti) kana vasingade mombe chaidzo vanogona kukumbira mari yakaenzana nenhamba yemombe dzavanoda. Izvi zviri nyore kumhuri zhinji nekuti kuchengeta mombe kunogona kuva nguva uye basa rakanyanya. Chikamu chechipiri, apo mhuri yemurume inozviratidza pachavo pazuva rakabvumiranwa, mari inoiswa zvakare mudengu rakarukwa kuti ibvumidzwe kutaura uye kuzadzikisa zvikumbiro zvemhuri yemuroora nekuburitsa roora yese.

Mhuri[chinja | edit source]

Kutumidza mazita[chinja | edit source]

Zita rekutanga[chinja | edit source]

Patsika dzechiShona mwana anopihwa zita rekutanga zvichibva pakudiwa nevabereki. Zita rinogona kuve zita rababa, vanun'una vake kana vabereki vake. Inogona zvakare kuve zita raamai, vanun'una vake kana vabereki vake.

Nzira inowanzozivikanwa yekutumidza mazita eShona inoenderana nemamiriro ekuberekwa kwemwana. Semuenzaniso, kana panguva yekuzvarwa kwemwana paive nemamiriro ezvinhu asina kunaka kana akanaka aigona kuve akakonzera amai nemwana kuva munjodzi mwana anogona kutumidzwa achishandisa iyi mamiriro.[23][24] Mazita akadai sa'Tsitsi ' (sekuti 'Mwari vatinzwira tsitsi 'uye mwana akasunungurwa zvakanaka)

Dzimwe nzira dzinogona kutumidzwa nemwana dzinoenderana nevabereki zvido zvemwana, nharaunda yavo kana nyika[23]. 'Tendai' (ivai nekutenda) kana 'Rudo' (ivai nerudo) . Pamusoro pezvo, mwana anogona kupihwa zita zvichibva pachokwadi kana mamiriro enyika yevabereki,[23] senge; 'Nhamo' (sekurwa), kana 'Achadiwa' (sekuti 'mwana achazodiwa', kunyanya kana mubatanidzwa wevabereki usina kugamuchirwa). Mamwe mazita anogona kunge ari shure kwemhuka, mwaka, mavara, nhamba uye nezvimwewo. Vana vechiShona kazhinji havana mazita epakati uye vazhinji vane zita rekutanga uye rekupedzisira.

Zita remhuri[chinja | edit source]

Mazita ekupedzisira evana veChiShona anowanzove ababa. Semuenzaniso kana zita rababa riri 'Zana' mwana anopihwa zita rababa vake. Panyaya yekuzvitangisa vechiShona vanhu vanoti zita rekutanga kana rekupedzisira zita. Kana rakanyorwa zita rekutanga rinouya rekutanga uye rekupedzisira rechipiri, kunyangwe izvi zvichigona kuitwa nerekare. Icho chikonzero chiri chekuti kunyangwe vanhu vechiShona vachiziva vanhu nemazita emhuri yavo.[23][24] Sezvazviri nekuziva zita remhuri yako kuti iwe uzive iyo nharaunda yavanogona kubva, uye kuti vanogona kuva mwana waani Kunyanya kukosha, kana mumwe munhu achizvizivisa kana kusangana nemumwe munhu waanoziva navo vanowanzo bvunza zita ravo rekupedzisira.

  • "Uri mwana waani?" Kana vangangodaro vanosanganisira zita remhuri ravari kufunga nezvaro," Uri mwana waZana here iwewe? "

Uye kana uchipindura mubvunzo wakadai mumwe angati:

  • "Ndinonzi Hazvinei Zana" kana kuti vangangotanga nezita ravo rekupedzisira, "Ndinonzai Zana, Hazvinei Zana'.
  • Mumwe anogona kuti "Ehe, ndiri mwana wekwaZana. Ndinonzi Hazvinei".

Icho chikonzero chekureva zita rekupedzisira pekutanga kuzivisa mumwe munhu ndechekuti azive mhuri inobva munhu wacho. Nekudaro nei sumo dzechinyakare dzaigara dzichitaridzika seizvi:

  • "Hazvinei Zana, mwana wekwaZana"

Kana kuti

  • "Hazvinei Zana, wemba yaZana"

Mazita evabereki[chinja | edit source]

Kutimidza munhu zita nekuda kwemana wake (Chirungu: Tekynonyms). Vashona vanowanzova nemazita evabereki kana mazita ekuremekedza mushure memwana. Semuenzaniso kana vaine vana vatatu Hazvinei, Tsitsi naAchadiwa Zana. Vabereki vachatumidzwa zita remwana wavo wedangwe. Semuenzaniso:

  • Amai Hazvi kana Mai Hazvi (vachiuya kubva kuna amai vaHazvinei),

saizvozvo baba vachatumidzwa sa:

  • Baba waHazvi kana BaHazvi (vachiuya kubva kuna baba vaHazvinei).

Zvipfeko[chinja | edit source]

Kupfeka kweVashona kwakura pamusoro pemakore, kunyanya kana kuchionekwa kubva kunguva dzechinyakare kusvika mazuva ano. Vashona vane nhoroondo yehunhu waka pfuma, kunyangwe hazvo vakasiya tsika nemagariro avo kazhinji nekuti vanozviti ndezve madhimoni nekuda kweVarungu nekuzvivenga (uye nekuda kuita seVarungu, nekufanana neVarungu) vano wanzo shora hunhu hwavo. Tsika yavo pamusor pezve kupfeka kazhinji zvakanyanya mavara uye mavara akajeka.

Machira[chinja | edit source]

File:Shona attire.jpg
Vakadzi, Vasikana neVana vechiShona

Mutsika dzeVashona kana munhu achipfeka anofinhira kuzviremekedza, uye kuremekedza vamwe nenhaka yake, izvi zvinosanganiswa nekuva nehunhu (Ndebele: Ubuntu). Pamusoro pezvo, hembe dzevanhu vechiShona muchinyakare (kunyangwe ikozvino) dzaiwanzo kuve machira aiputirwa pamwiri, muchimiro aitaridzika se:

  • Rokwe (dress)
  • Siketi (skirts)
  • Mbikiza (short skirt)
  • Sleeveless "top" (vakadzi vaisungira kana ku-tuck in jira racho)
  • One shoulder "tops" (vakadzi vaigona kusungira pabendekete)
  • Mabhurugwa (kunyanya evarume)
  • Pamwe vaingova nemachira ekufuga muchando
File:Mashona.jpg
Vasikana vechiShona

Vamwe vasikana vaingo pfeka jira rekuita se siketi vasinga vhari mazamu.

Maonamenzi (ornaments)[chinja | edit source]

Chuma Che Chiuno[chinja | edit source]

Chuma chechiuno (Chirungu: Waist beads; waist belts) ne mabhande echiuno pfekwa nevasikana vechiShona sefashoni. Chume chechiuno kunyanya chaingova chefashoni, uye chekuti vasikana vanake mumaziso evarume. Zvimwe zvikonzero zvekupfeka chuma chechiuno hachizivikwi.

Chuma Che Hudyu[chinja | edit source]

Pamusoro pe chiuma chechiuno vasikana vechiShona vaipfeka chuma chehudyu (Chirungu: hip beads). Izvi zvaipfekwa kuti zvibate masiketi avasikana panzvimbo, uye zvaive zvakanaka.

Ndoro[chinja | edit source]

Ndoro yainge yakafanana ne shepu yemasheo; masheu kana masheosi; masheusi (Chirungu: shell; shells) aibva kucoast yeMozambiki nekuti Vashona vaitonga uye nekugara nzvimbo yakawanda, pamusoro pezvo vaitengesa zvinhu vachipihwa zvimwe mukudzoserwa. Masheu aigadzirwa sema necklaces aipfekwa pahuro uye pahuma.

Bhurasi Onamenzi (brass ornaments)[chinja | edit source]

Aipfekwa mutsoka, muhuro nemumaoko evakadzi.

Varume vaigona kumapfeka mumaoko kana mumaoko.

Madhikausi[chinja | edit source]

Madhikausi (Chirungu: earrings)

Unyanzvi (art)[chinja | edit source]

Zviumbwa (sculptures)[chinja | edit source]

Mhanzi[chinja | edit source]

Makombwe (instruments)[chinja | edit source]

Ngoma[chinja | edit source]
Ngoma dzeMhande
  • Shauro

yakashandiswa pakutungamira rhythm

  • Tsinhiro

inoshandiswa kune mutinhimira

wekupindura

Dinhe Ngoma
  • Mhito

inoshandiswa kune inotungamira rhythm

  • Mitumba miviri

inoshandiswa kuita mutinhimira

wekupindura

Chokoto Ngoma (idzi misoro miviri)
  • Chimudumbana

diki, yekutungamira rhythm

  • Chigubha

chihombe, chekupindura

mutinhimira

Tsaranziyo (lyrics)[chinja | edit source]

Zvinyorwa[chinja | edit source]

Mabviro eruzivo[chinja | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 The Patriot, 5 Kukadzi 2015, 'Origin of the Shona name' Yakatariswa: 8 Chikumi 2021
  2. 2.0 2.1 'Enthologue: shona', Yakatariswa: 9 Chikumi 2021
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