Zimbabwe

From Wikipedia
Hona zveMasvingo eZimbabwe.
Kana uchitsvaga zvakawanda nezvokuvhota gore ra2008, ona nyaya iyi.
Rudhende rwe Zimbabwe
Mitauro ye chihofisi
Chishona: Rudhende rwe Zimbabwe;Nyika ye Zimbabwe
Chindeḅele: Ilizwe leZimbabwe
Chikalanga: Hango ye Zimbababwe
Chichewa: Dziko la Zimbabwe
Chibarwe: Nyika ye Zimbabwe
Chinambya: Inyika yeZimbabwe
Chikhoisan: Zimbabwe Nù
Chindau: Nyika yeZimbabwe
Chishangani: Tiko ra Zimbabwe
Chisutu: Naha ya Zimbabwe
Chitonga: Cisi ca Zimbabwe
Chivhenda: Shango ḽa Zimbabwe
Chixhosa: Ilizwe lase-Zimbabwe
Chingezi: Republic of Zimbabwe
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Coat of arms of Zimbabwe.svg
National motto: Unity, Freedom, Work
National anthem: Rwiyo rwezvishuvo zveZimbabwe
LocationZimbabwe.png
Nzvimbo yeZimbabwe (yakavarwa Zerere tema)
Dhorobha huru Harare17°50′S 31°3′E
Mitauro yeNyika yeZimbabwe Mitauro 16:
Marudzi evanhu

(2012 Census)

Vatema (VaBantu uyeVamwe veAfurika)
  • 99.38%

Vamwe

  • 0.22% Varungu veAfurika
  • 0.18% Vakavarwa (colored)
  • 0.08% Maezhiya
  • 0.02% Vamwe
  • 0.01% Havazivikanwe
Rudaviro

(2017)

Chitendo
  • 84.1% Vakristu
  • —69.2% Protestantism
  • —14.9% vamwe vaKristu
  • 10.2% Vasina Rudaviro
  • 4.5% Rudaviro rweChinyakare
  • 1.2% zvimwe
  • Rudaviro rweVashona
Demonym(s) ZimbabweanZimbo (nevanhu)
Hurumende Unitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
• Mutungamiri weNyika Emmerson Mnangagwa
• Mutevedzeri weMutungamiri weNyika Constantino Chiwenga
Legislature Paramende
• Imba yepamusoro Senate
• Imba yepazasi National Assembly
Kuzvimirira kubva kuUnited Kingdom
• Declared 11 Mbudzi 1965
• Republic 2 Kurume 1970
• Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1 Chikumi 1979
• Independence recognised 18 Kubvumbi 1980
• Constitution yeizvozvi 15 Chivabvu 2013
Nzvimbo
• Yese 390,757 km2 (150,872 sq mi) (60th)
• Mvura (%) 1
Huwandu hweVanhu
• 2019 estimate 15,092,171 (74th)
• 2012 census 12,973,808
• Dhenziti (density) 26/km2 (67.3/sq mi) (170th)
GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate
• Yese $41.031 bhiriyoni
• Per capita $2,621
GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate
• Yese $22.290 bhiriyoni
• Per capita $1,424
Gini (2017) 44.3medium
HDI (2019) 0.571medium · 150th
Mari Dhora reZimbabwe
Zoni yenguva UTC+2 (CAT)
Urongwa rwezuva zz/mm/gggg

(zuva/mwedzi/gore)

Divi rekutyaira Ruboshwe
Kodhi yenhare +263
ISO 3166 code ZW
Internet TLD .zw

Zimbabwe ichinzizve pachihofisi Rudhende rwe Zimbabwe, inyika yakakomberedzwa iri kuchamhembe kwe Afurika, dzimwe nguva ichinzi iri kumabvazuva kana kuChamhembechemabvazuva kwe Afurika.

Yakaganhurana neMazambuko kumabvazuva, Afurika Chamhembe kuchamhembe kwayo, Vutswana kumadokero, Zambia kumaodzanyemba. Zimbambwe ine mitauro guminetanhatu yepachihofisi, ruzhinki rwevanhu runogona kutaura Chingezi kwazvo nokuda kwe hukoloni we Mabhuritani, asi huwandu hungasvike 85% huno taura Chishona serurimi rwa mai. Chishona ndicho chaive mutauro wehugari weruzhinji rwe vanhu kubva muchikarekare, Chikaranga chichinzi ndicho chimutauronyina chezera rikurukuru pakati pezvishona zvose, uye ne Chikalanga icho chinehukama nahwo. Rurimi rwechipiri runotaura nepamwe 20% yehuwandu we Vanhu iChindeḅele rwunotaurwawo zvakare muZimbabwe nevanhu veMatabele. Ava vanhu vakasvikawo munzvimbo iyi apo veChishona vanga vatodzika midzi, avo VeMatabele vakabva kuAfurika Chamhembe sechikamu cheMazulu vachitiza Mambo Shaka Zulu. Asi nhasi, Vandeḅele vanosanganisa Vakaranga-Vakalanga, Vasutu, Vashangani nevamwe wo, nekuda kwekuti Mambo Mzilikazi vakaumba Mthwakazi (Umambo we Mandeḅele) vachisanganisa vanhu vavakawana vari muZimbabwe uye nevakabviwanawo kuAfurika Chamhembe.

Zvakare kuchamhembe kwenyika iyi kune rwizi rukuru rwunonzi Limpopo, ukuwo kumawodzanyemba kunezve rumwe rwizi rukuru runonzi Zambezi. Nzizi idzi ihuru kwazvo uye dzinodira muGungwa re India.

Kubvira makore 1250 kabanga kuzvika 1629, nzvimbo yavekuzikanwa seZimbabwe iyi yaitongwa neUbwami wa Mutapa (Mutapa Empire), vachizikanwazve sekuti Mwenemutapa. Nzvimbo iyoyi yaive nemukurumbira chaizvo panyaya dzendarama (kana goridhe), iro raifambiswa nevanhu vechiArabhu. Zvakadaro, veChiputukezi vakauya ndokuparadza hurongwa ihwohwo nokukasira, zvikasiya Monomatapa iri panguva yekusaziva zvekuita. Gore ra1834 veMatabele, ava vanga vakuzviti maNdebele, vakasvikawo munzvimbo iyoyi yamadzimambo Mutapa. Vakasvika nechekuchamhemhembechemadokero kwenzvimbo yamadzimambo Mutapa. Tambo taura pamusoro kuti vanhu ava vakange vari kutiza kubva kunamambo wavowo Shaka ainge arikudya marasha chamhembe ikoko. VechiNdebele ava vaitungamirwawo namambo wavo Lobengula. Nzvimbo yavakagara iyi yaizozikanwa seMatabeleland munguva yaizotevera kusanginisira zvino uno.

Nyika ye Zimbabwe yakawana kuzvitonga mugore ra1980, apo bato reZanu-PF raRobert Gabriel Mugabe rakavhoterwa neruzhinji rwevanhu. Mureza weBhiritani wakadzikiswa musi wa18 April 1980, mureza weZimbabwe ukasimudzwa. VaMugabe vakatonga nyika iyi kwemakore anopotsa makumi mana. Mushure mekudaro, mutevedzeri wavo Emmerson Mnangagwa akatora chinzvimbo chazvo mushure mekunge va Mugabe vamanikidzwa kuti vasiye basa. Emmerson Mnangagwa uyu haana kuzvitorera chigaro ega, akabatsirwa nemauto uyezve aiva nerubatsiro rwebato raitonga rinova Zanu PF. Iri ndiro bato richirikutonga munyika ye Zimbabwe zuva ranhasi. Emmeson Mnangagwa akatpinda pachigaro mugore ra 2017 mumwedzi waMbudzi, netarisiro yekuti gore raitevera paitwe sarudzo yekutsvaga mutungamiri wenyika anodiwa nevanhu. Ruzhinji rwakamusarudza zvakare asi pakaita mutauro nemutungamiriri webato rinopikisa MDC rinotungamirirwa na VaNelson Chamisa.

Nyaya iyi yakanetsa ikatozoenda kudare redzimhosva rinoona nenyaya dzebumbiro remitemo. Nyaya yaVaChamisa yekupikisa zvakabuda musarudzo yakaonekwa nedare isina humbowo, dare rikati Emmeson Mnangawa ndiye akasarudzwa neruzhinji.

Kupiwa kweZita[chinja | edit source]

Republic of Zimbabwe kuChirungu inokwanisa kuturikirwa kuchinzi Nyika yeRuzhinji rweZimbabwe kana Nyika yeRudhende rweZimbabwe kana Nyika yeMukumbi weZimbabwe.

Matongerwo eNyika[chinja | edit source]

Zimbabwe inyika yakapatsanurwa kuva nematunhu makuru masere nemaguta mairi anotarisirwa sematunhu mukuva kwawo. Dunhu rese rine guta guru imo munoitirwa mabhizimusi ehurumende.

Dunhu Guru Guta Guru
Bulawayo Province koBulawayo
Harare Province Harare
Manicaland Mutare
Mashonaland Central Bindura
Mashonaland East Marondera
Mashonaland West Chinhoyi
Masvingo Masvingo
Matabeleland North Lupane
Matabeleland South Gwanda
Midlands Gweru

Mazita ematunhu akagadzirwa kubva mumazita eMashonaland neMatabeleland iwo akagadzirwa nevarungu munguva yekutongwa neBhritani. Mashonaland ndiyo yaive nzvimbo yatanga kugarwa neBritish South Africa Company Pioneer Column uko Matabeleland yaiva nzvimbo yakatorwa mukupera kweHondo yekutanga yemaMatabele (First Matabele War). Nzvimbo idzi dzinotevedzawo nyika dzaigarwa nemaShona nemaNdebele varungu vasati vauya, zvisinei kuti izvozvi kunoita kusangana kwevanhu mumatunhu aya. Dunhu rese rinotongwa naProvincial Governor, uyu anosarudzwa nemutangimiri wenyika yeZimbabwe. Hurumende yematunhu inotungamirwa naiye Provincial Administrator, uyu anosarudzwa nePublic Service Commission. Zvimwewo zvinhu zvinoitwa nehurumende yenyika mumatunhu zvinoitwa nemahofisi emapoka ehurumende yenyika.

Zimbabwe paDandira reMbariro neNhungo dzeTaranyika[chinja | edit source]

Nyika yeZimbabwe iri murumana rwembariro 20oS neNhungo 30oE. Zimbabwe iri pakati peMutsazanisi neTropic of Capricon, inova nzvimbo iri mudunhu reTropics rinowana murazvo wezuva zvakanyanya. Nzvimbo dziri muTropics dzinodziya nguva zhinji, kana tichienzanisa nenzvimbo dziri kunze kweTropics. Zvakadaro tinoda kuonesana kuti nyika yeZimbabwe inotonhorera zvichienzaniswa nedzimwe nzvimbo dziri mudunhu reTropics. Izvi zvinokonzerwa nokuti chikamu cheZimbabwe chiri panzvimbo yakakwirira inonzi duvurwi (plateau). Nzvimbo dziri pahukwidza (altitude) huri pamusoro dzinotonhorera pane nzvimbo dziri pahukwidza huri pasi.

Hezvinoi zviringani zveTaranyika zvemaguta ari muZimbabwe:

Utemabanze we Rudhende rweVuarabhu rweSaharawiSomarirandi

Mavuso anozivikanwa zvishoma

(Speini) Canary Islands / Ceuta / Melilla • (Putugaro) Madeira • (Furanzi) Mayotte / Réunion • (United Kingdom) Saint Helena / Ascension Island / Tristan da CunhaSahara ye Madokero

Zvisi ne Materitori ekunze