ChiShona

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ChiShona
General Information
Nyika Zimbabwe, Botswana neMozambique
ISO 639
ISO 639-1 sn
ISO 639-2 sna
ISO 639-3
Muenzano wemabhii eChishona.

Chishona (Chivanhu kana Standard Shona (n. Sitandadhi Shona (S.S)) mutauro unobatanidza ndimi dzakawanda dzinotaurwa muZimbabwe, Bhotswana neMozambiki. Mitauronyina kana muyambonyina inobatanidzwa ichinzi ChiShona inosanganisira: Chikaranga, Chimanyika, Chizezuru, Chikorekore, Chindau, Chibudya, Chitonga nemimwewo.[1][2]

Zvakadaro zvakafanira kuti tionesane kuti kune vamwe vatauri vasingafare kuti vanzi vari muboka remutauro weChishona - ivava vanoona mitauro yavo semitauro yakazvimirira yoga isiri pasi peChishona.[2]

Bhuku renganonyorwa rekutanga rakanyorwa mugore ra1957 naSolomon Mutswairo rinonzi Feso.

Vanhu vakaronga kuti Chishona chive chinonyoreka ndiClement Doke naGeorge Glynn Fortune.

Kune kusa wirirana kwemanyorerwe emutauro weChishona zvichibva pakuti vatauri vazhinji vari kutadza kubvuma (recognise) kuvako kwemashoko madiki akaita sekunge anotevera aya: ku, pa, ma, va, aka, zvichingo daro. Zvakafanana nekuvapo kwemashoko anenge I, of, is, for paChirungu. Semuenzaniso, ndima yechipiri kubva kumusoro yaifanira kunyorwa ichiti, "Zvakadaro zava fanira kuti tiwonesane kuti kune vamwe vatauri".

Tika kwanisa kunyora tichidai zvinoita nyore kune vanoda kunyora kana kusika mapurogiramu kana sofutiwee (software) kana maEpu (app) yekuturukira mutauro wedu weChishona.

Bumbiro remabhi echishona[chinja | edit source]

MuChishona shoko rekuti mabhii rinoreva kuti alphabet kana letters muChirungu - asi zvichireva mabhii echishona. Muchiverenga peji rino rangarirai kuti Sitandadhi Shona (S.S.) inokwereta mashoko kune mimwe mitauro yeShona, kunyanya chiZezuru ne chiKaranga.[2] Vamwe vanototi Chishona chacho Chizezuru nekudakwe izvo.

Mamwe mabhii, senge manzvanyira arikuramba achiumbwa kuti ashandure ('are formed to evolve') mutauro weChishona kuti usafe. Iko kusakwanisa kushanduka kwemutauro uchienderera mberi ('the failure of a language to evolve and adapt continuously'), kunoita kuti mutauro usakwaniswe shandiswa zuva nezuva, kwekutaurirana, kunyora kana zvimwewo. Nekudaro mutauro wechiShona zvakare wakashanduka uye ndokutora mashoko matsva kubva kune mimwe mitauro yekune dzimwe nyika, neweChibhantu kuti usafe.[3][4][2]

MABHII ECHISHONA
A B BH CH D DH E F G H I J K M N N' O P R Rh S T U V VH W Y Z
Bw Bv

Bvw Bw/Bg

(Bhw)

Chw Dw Dv

Dy

Dyw Dz

Dzv

Dzvw

Dzw

Fw Gh

Gw

Hw

*Hy

Jw

*Jy

Kw

*Ky

Mb

Mbh Mbw

Mv

Mvw

Mw (mua)

Mw (mx)

Nd

Ndw

Ndy

Ndyw

Ng

Ngw

Nh

Nhw

Nj

Njw

Nw

Ny

Nyw

Nz

Nzv

Nzvw

Nzw

N'w Pf

*Pfw Pw (pua)

Pw (px)

*Py

"L"

Rw Ry

Ryw

Sh

Shw

Sk

Skw

Sp

Spw

St

Stw

Sv

Svw

Sw

Ts

Tsv

Tsvw

Tsw

Tw

Ty

Tyw

Vw Vhw Yw Zh

Zhw

Zv

Zvw

Zw

Chimwe chinhu chekurangarira ndechekuti, nekuda kwekuti Sitandadhi Shona yakasiyana nedzimwe mitauro yerudzi rweChishona mabhii anogona kusiyana. Mabhii echiKaranga anosiyana nemabhii echiNdau, uye mamwe anogona kunge akafanana nekuti vanhu vanotaura mutaro wacho wanenge wachigara pedyo nerimwe dzinza (geographically).[4][2]

Mutauro yevaNdau yakasiyana nemimwe mitauro yevamwe MaShona, izvi zvakadaro nechikonzero chemitauro yevanhu vechiNguni. Zivai kuti izvi hazvireve kuti Ndau mutauro wechiNguni, sezvo uchiri unonzwisisika nemimwe mitauro yeShona. Mutauri wechiNguni (Chindebele, Chixhosa, Chihlubi nezvimwewo) havakwanisi kunzwisisa mamwe mazwi eNdau kudarika mutauri wechiShona (Karanga, Korekore, Manyika nezvimwe).[2]

Zvivaramwana zveShona[chinja | edit source]

Varamwana (/ⱱɑːrɑːmwɑːnɑː/) kana Zvivaramwana zve Chishona. Pazasi panoratidza tafura yezvivaramwana zveChishona.

ZVIVARAMWANA ZVESITANDADHI SHONA
BHII IPA SHOKO CHIRUNGU MUTSARA CHIRUNGU
A ɑː Amai mother Amai vangu vanondida. My mother loves me.
E ɛ Enda go Zvakaoma kukuona uchienda. It's hard to see you go.
I Ina four Iawa ina izvozvi. It's 4 right now. (or 'the fourth hour')
O Oma hard Akaoma musoro. He/she is hard headed.
U Udza tell Akavaudza hora risiro. He/she told them the wrong hour.

Zivai kuti mavaramwana eChiShona anotaurwa sezvaakanyorwa, kunyangwe kunge akanyorwa nerimwe varamwana, mataurirwo haachinji.

Zvinzvanyira zve Chishona[chinja | edit source]

Zvinzvanyira ( /ʐiːnʐɑːnjiːrɑː/) zvinoreva kuti consonants muChirungu. ChiShona chine mazinga mana eMabhii nekuti akanyorwa achishandisa Keruro ye Chiratini[5]; zvinzvanyira zvimwe, zvitatu nezvina. Chinyorwa cheRatini hachinatsoratidza zvinzvanyira zvese mumitauro yeShona. Nekudaro muchikamu chino munowana mamwe maungira anotaurwa asi chinyorwa chakanyorwa hachiwanikwe, mienzaniso yemazwi ichapihwa.

Keruro ye Chiratini[chinja | edit source]

Mabhii eRatini akagadziridzwa kuSitandadhi Shona anoratidzaka se zviri pazasi:

Mabhii eChiShona
A B BH CH D DH E F G H I J K M N N' O P R Rh S T U V VH W Y Z Zh

Tsananguro yemitauro.[chinja | edit source]

Sitandadhi Shona hayina C, L, Xne Q, nekuti inonyanya kuva mashoko echiZezuru ne mamwe mbijana echiKaranga. C, Xuye Qmumitauro yeBantu inozivikanwa semabhii e Kudzvanya, uye muSitandadhi Shona kudzvanya kunoonekera zvakareuruka muzvinzvanyira zvakaita se-'D'. Zvakadaro, rangarira kuti kunyangwe zvimwe zvinzvanyira izvi zvisipo muSitandadhi Shona zvirimo mumamwe mitauro yeShona, senge chiNdau, chiManyika uye chiKaranga. ChiKorekore uye ChiZezuru ndivo mitauro maviri echiShona asina zvinzvanyira zveKudzvanya.[2]

Pamusoro peizvo, Ndau ndiyo zvakare mutauro wechiShona une chinzvanyira 'L' ayo asingawanikwe mune mimwe mitauro mina (zvakakonzerwa nevaNguni). Izvi zvisinei hazvo hazvikanganisi kugona kwevamwe vaShona kunzwisisa chiNdau.[6][2]

Mabhii emimwe mitauro yeChishona achave akanyorwa pakasiyana.

Zvinzvanyira[chinja | edit source]

Shoko rekuti zvinzvanyira rino mirira mabhii anovaka mashoko, uye rinozivikwa muChirungu se ma-consonants.

ZVINZVANYIRA ZVIMWE (single consonants)
BHII IPA SHOKO CHIRUNGU MUTSARA CHIRUNGU
B Baba father Ndibaba wangu. It's my father.
CH Changu mine Ichi ndechangu. This is mine.
D Dota ash Akasvibiswa nemadota. He/she was dirtied by the ashes.
F Fara joy, happiness Mwana uyo anofara. That child is happy/joyous.
G Gore cloud, year Igore ripi? | Hona gore iro. What year is it? | Look at that cloud.
H Hope sleepy Ane hope. He/She is sleepy.
J Jecha sand Ndofarira kufamba mujecha. I like walking in the sand.
K Kupi where Urikuenda kupi? Where are you going?
M Moto fire Moto unokudziyisa kana kukupisa. Fire can burn you or warm you.
N Naya rain, raining Kunze kurikunaya. It's raining outside.
N' N'ombe cow Tinoda n'ombe paroora. We want cows for brideprice.
P Pika swear Unopika here? Do you swear?
R Rota dream Ndiudze zvawakarota. Tell me what you dreamt.
S Seka laugh Akanaka achiseka. He/she is pretty when laughing.
T Temba believe, trust Unotemba naye? You trust/believe in him/her?
V Vanhu people VaShona Vanhu vechiBantu. Shona people are Bantu people.
W Wakai build Wakai musiye njodzi. Build and leave disaster.
Y Yeuka remember Zita rake rinonzi Yeuka. Her name is Remember (Yeuka).
Z Zana hundred Unogona kureva kusvika zana? Can you count to a hundred?

Zvinzvanyira Zviiri[chinja | edit source]

Zvinzvanyira zviviri zvinosanganisa mabhii mairi kuti mamwe agadzirwe.

ZVINZVANYIRA ZVIVIRI (Double consonants)
BHII IPA SHOKO CHIRUNGU MUTSARA CHIRUNGU
BH Bhaiskopu

(Bhais'kopu)

Bioscope, movie Anofarira kuona bhaiskopu. He/she likes watching movies.
BV Bvunza ask Bvunza vanhu vanoziva nezvenhorondo yeMaShona. Ask people that know about Shona history.
BW Ibwe stone, brick Anogona kusika zvinhu neibwe. He/she can create things from stone.
CHW Wachwa washed Zvakawachwa nani? Who washed this?
DH Dhadha duck Handisati ndabodya dhadha. I have never eaten a duck.
*DW kudwa (kudiwa),

Tsvodwa

To be wanted,

kissed

Chinodwa naTafa.

Anofarira kutsvodwa.

It's wanted by Tafa.

He/she likes being kissed.

DY Dyara planting a seed Anodyara mbeu. He/she plants seeds.
DZ Dzidza learn Ndinogona kudzidza. I am good at learning.
GW Gwavha guava Magwavha anemhodzi. Guavas have seeds.
HW Hweva Venus, morning star Hweva izita rechindeya. Venus is the name for a planet.
KW Kwira clim Kwira gomo uyende. Climb the mountain and go.
MB Mbise brown Ndine ganda mbise rinotsvodwa nezuva. I have sunkissed brown skin.
MH Mhou cow Ndifarira nyama yemhou. I like cow meet.
MV Mvura water Mvura inonaka kana unenzara. Water tastes good when you're hungry.
MW Mwana child Mwana wekwedu iyeye! She's a child from ours!
*N'W Yan'wa

(Yamwa)

(dialect difference)

suckle, suck (milk) Mwana ariku yan'wa mukaka. The baby is sucking milk (breast milk).
ND Ndarama gold (mineral, colour) Ndarama iruvara rwakanaka. Gold is a beautiful colour.
NG Ngano folklore, fairytale, fantasy Ndinonyora zvinyorwa zvengano. I write fantasy books.
NH Nhema lies, black Anongoreva nhema. He/she only tells lies.
NJ Njuzu mermaid Ndakaona njuzu. I saw a mermaid.
NW Nwiwa watermelon Handifarire nwiwa. I don't like watermelon.
NY Nyeredzi star, stars Maziso ako anopenya senyeredzi. Your eyes sparkle like stars.
NZ Nzira road Kwira nenzira iyi. Go/climb with this road.
PF Pfupfu, pfumbi grey (colour) Vhudzi rake iruvara pfupfu. His/her hair is grey.
PW Pwanya (pwanhya) break Akapwanya girazi. He/she broke the glass.
RW Rwiyo song Rwiyo rwaunofarira runonzi chii? What is your favourite song?
SH Shoko word Shoko iri rinorevei? What does this word mean?
*SK Maskati (mas'kati)

Bhais'kopo

afternoon

Bioscope

Ndokuona maskati.

Ndanga ndichiona bhais'kopo.

I'll see you in the afternoon.

I was watching a bioscope.

*ST Stereki a lot Unotaurisa stereki. You talk too much.
SV Svondo (Sondo) Sunday, Week Isvondo ripi rinori? What week is this?
SW Swera spend the day Waswera sei? How was your day?
TS Tsaranziyo lyrics Anonyora rutsaranziyo rwake. He/she writes his lyrics.
TW Twasanuka relax, fix seating position Twasanuka makumbo ugare mushe. Relax your legs and sit in a better position.
TY Tyiswa be scared Akatyiswa naJabu. He/she was scared by Jabu.
VH Vheneka brighten up Mwenje rinovheneka mumba The light bulb brightens the house.
*VW Revwa (n. reviwa) be said, be counted Zvaka revwa neShami. It was said/counted by Shami
ZH Zhizha summer Zita rake ndiZhizha. Her name is Summer.
ZV Zvinhu things Zvinhu zvaani izvi? Whose things are these?
ZW Izwi voice, word Ndanzwa izwi rako. I heard your voice.

Zvinzvanyira zvitatu.[chinja | edit source]

Zvinzvanyira zvitatu zvinosanganisa mabhii matatu kana kuwedzera pamusoro pezvinzvanyira zviviri kuti mamwe agidzirwe.

ZVINZVANYIRA ZVITATU (Tripple Consonants)
BHII IPA SHONA CHIRUNGU MUTSARA CHIRUNGU
DZV Dzvanya squash, squesh Zhou inogona kudzvanya gonzo. An elephant can squash a rat.
DZW Udzwa be told Wakaudzwa nani? Who told you?
MBW Imbwa dog Imbwa yaani iyo? Whose dog is that?
NDW Pindwa be entered Mumba makapindwa tisipo. The house was entered when we weren't here.
NGW Ngwara smart Mukomana wako akangwara. Your boyfriend is smart.
NHW Donhwe droplet Atoteswa nemadonhwe emvura. He/she was drenched by rain droplets.
NJW Chinjwa be changed Akachinjwa nekuda kwemunyama. He/she was changed due tp misfortune.
NYW Menywa Zvamenywa naSifo. It was cracked open by Sifo.
NZV Nzvenga avoid Arikunzvenga mapurisa. He/she is avoiding the police.
NZW Nzwara nail, nails Une nzwara dzakareba. You have long nails.
SHW Ishwa flying termite Unodya ishwa here? Do you eat flying termites.
*SKW Muskwe,

Skwinywa

Tail,

be itchy

Chine muskwe refu.

Ndiri kus'kwinywa.

It has a long tail.

I am itchy.

TSV Tsvuku red Ruvara tsvuku huri pamureza weZimbabwe. The colour red is on the Zimbabwean flag.
TSW Mutswa be awakened Asi mangamusingade kumutswa? Did you not want to be woken up?
*VHW Muvhwa be moved Zvinhu zvakamuvhwa naTaona. The things were moved by Taona.
ZHW Hozhwa snail Vanhu vechiFurenji vanodya hozhwa. French people eat snails.

Mitauro yeBantu[chinja | edit source]

  • MaZulu vanoti intshonalanga (n. The west. Lit. where the sun sets. Shona + Ilanga).

Mabhii ekudhara[chinja | edit source]

Shona yakamboshandisa Keruro yeChiarabhu.[7]

Keruro ye Chiarabhu.[chinja | edit source]

Rangarirai kuti Shona haicha shandisi Keruro yeChiarabhu, yaishandiswa kudhara uye zvaisava kwenguva yakareba.[7]

Chishona chakafanana neChiswahiri saka mabhii acho aka fanana, uye mamwe mashoko acho akafanana (Vaswahiri vanoti ng'ombe uye Isu tinoti n'ombe tese tichireva cow). Nekuti mabhii emitauro iyi akafanana mabhii eSwahiri eChiarabhu anogona kushandiswa semuenzaniso wemabhii eChishona muChiarabhu.

Keruro ye Chiratini[chinja | edit source]

Kubva muna 1931 kusvika 1955, Chishona chakabatanidzwa yakanyorwa iine mabhii akagadzirwa na muzvinafundo Purofesa/Pwafesa Clement Martyn Doke. Izvi zvaisanganisira tsamba dzinotevera:

ɓ (b ane haka),
ɗ (d ane haka),
ŋ (n ane gumbo),
ȿ (s ane muskwe weswashi),
ʋ (v ane haka),
ɀ (z ane muskwe weswashi).
Mabhii eChihona
Mabhii anhasi A B BH CH D DH E F G H I J K M N N' O P R Rh S T U V VH W Y Z
Mabhii ekare ɓ b c ɗ d f g h j k m n nn ng' p l r s t ʋ v w y z
Mabhii eChishona
Mabhii anhasi A BH BV BW CHW DH DY DZ E GW HW HY I KW MB MH MV MW ND NG NH NJ NW NY NZ
Mabhii ekare b bg cw d dy dz gg hw kw mb mh nd ŋg nh nj ny
Mabhii anhasi O PW PF PY RW RY SH SV SW TS TW TY U VH ZH ZV ZW N'W
Mabhii ekare px pf rw sh ȿ sw ts ty zh ɀ nny
Mabhii eChishona
Mabhii anhasi A DZV DZW E MBH MBW NDY NDW NGW NHW NJW NYW NZV NZW ZHW TSV TSW O ZHW
Mabhii ekare dzw mbh mbg ndy nndy ŋgw nhw nzw zhw tȿ tsw zhw

Marefurenzi[chinja | edit source]

  1. Stevick, Earl W. Language, vol. 38, no. 1, 1962, pp. 99–101. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/411196. Yakatariswa: 4 Chivabvu 2021.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Isaac Mhute, 2016, 'Standardisation a Considerable Force behind Language Death: A case of Shona',Journal of Education and Practice. ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.7, No.9, 2016
  3. Makoni, Sinfree, et al. “The Use of ‘Indigenous’ and Urban Vernaculars in Zimbabwe.” Language in Society, vol. 36, no. 1, 2007, pp. 25–49. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4169560. Yakatariswa: 10 Chivabvu 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Shizha, Edward. (2012). Reclaiming and Re-visioning Indigenous Voices: The Case of the Language of Instruction in Science Education in Zimbabwean Primary Schools. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal. 1. 785 - 793. 10.20533/licej.2040.2589.2012.0116.
  5. Scriptsource, n.d, 'Shona',writing systems for this language. Yakatariswa: 10 Chivabvu 2021
  6. MacGonagle, Elizabeth. “Living with a Tyrant: Ndau Memories and Identities in the Shadow of Ngungunyana.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 41, no. 1, 2008, pp. 29–53. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40282455. Yakatariswa 10 Chivabvu 2021.
  7. 7.0 7.1 owlapps, n.d, 'Arabic script',Former Use: Africa; Shona Zimbabwe Yakatariswa: 5 Chikumi 2021