Vandau

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Vandau
Mutauro Chindau, Chishona
Vatuari 2.4 miriyoni (2000-2006)
Mutauronyina Shanga Danda
Mhuri yemutauro Bhantu
  • Shona
  • S15 (Ndau)
Nzvimbo Zimbabwe, Mozambiki

Vandau kana Wandau idzinza revanhu vechiBhantu vakazvarwa muChipinge uye vanhu vedzinza rechiShona, vanoutaura mutauro unonzi Chindau.

Vambo rezita[chinja | edit source]

Zita rekuti Ndau rinobva mukukwazisa kwevanhu kwechinyakare "Ndau wee!" mukukwazisa uye mamwe maratidziro enharaunda. Vangoni pavakaona izvi, vakavadaidza kuti vanhu vechiNdau, iro zita pacharo rinoreva:

Dzimwe pfungwa ndedzekuti zita iri rakatorwa kubva mumashoko echiNguni "Amading'indawo" zvinoreva kuti "avo vanotsvaga nzvimbo" sezvo izvi zviri izvo vaGaza Nguni vakavadaidza uye zita rakazoshanduka rikava Ndau. Izvi zvakakanganisa, nekuti Mandau wakange wachigara panzimbo yenyika kudhara, Manguni wakavawana vakatogara munzvimbo dzeZimbabwe neMozambiki muma1500.[1]

Iwo mapoka mashanu makuru emaNdau ndiwo: Magova; Mashanga; Vatomboti, Madanda neTeve. Vanhu vekare veNdau vakasangana nemaKhoisan (Makhoi neMasan vese) panguva yekutengeserana kwekutanga nemaArabhu kuShiriyandenga inozivikanwa seMapungubwe. Vakatengesa nemaArabhu na "Mpalu" "Njeti" uye "Vukotlo '' aya ndiwo machira matsvuku, machena uye eungu pamwe chete ne endarama. Mandau vanhu vaitengesa mishonga yechivanhu, masimba emweya, makanda emhuka nemapfupa.

Nhoroondo[chinja | edit source]

Makaranga kuita Mandau[chinja | edit source]

Vandau vekare vane hukama nerudzi rweVakaranga, uye vakanga vatova kuMozambiki nedzimwe nzvimbo dzeZimbabwe kuma1500.[2] Nekuda kwekukunda kukuru kwakaitwa maNguni mumakore ekuma1820 dzinza reVandau rakashanduka richisanganisira ropa reManguni nemadzitateguru. Izvi zvinoonekwa nehupfumi hwemazwi eChinguni mumutauro wechiNdau, mazita nemasurname echiNguni. Mumakore ekuma1820, munguva yekusanaya kwemvura zvakanyanya, mauto echiNguni ekuchamhembe kunyanya (Vazulu, Vaswati, Vandwandwe, Vakhumalo ne Vandebele) vanhu vanotaura mitauro yeBhantu uye vanogara kuchamhembeemabvazuva eAfurika kubva kuCape Province kusvika kuchamhembe cheMozambiki, vakatanga kutamira kuMozambiki kubva kuAfurika Chemhembe yazvino. Mumwe She wechiNguni, Nxaba, akatanga humambo hwenguva pfupi pakati penyika kubva kuSofala, asi muna 1837 akakundwa na Soshangane, mukwikwidzi weNguni ane simba. Pakupedzisira Soshangane akavaka guta guru rake munzvimbo dzakakwirira dziri pakati peRwizi Sabie muZimbabwe yazvino. Vanguni-Shangani vakavamba umambo hweGaza kumaodzanyemba kweMozambiki uye vakakunda vazhinji weVandau vakanga vachitogara munzvimbo iyoyo.[3] Nhoroondo iyi inoratidza kuti Vanguni vakanga vauraya varume vakawanda vechiNdau ndokutora vakadzi wavo. Nekuda kweizvi, "Vanhu vechiNdau" vane mutsara wemhuri une ropa rwechiNguni. Izvi zvakasimbiswazve nekuroorana kweVanguni neVandau. Izwi rinonyanya kukodzera kutsanangura boka rinoguma rinosanganisira Ndau yemazuva ano iShangani. Tsika dzechiNdau dzakashandukawo kuti dzibatanidze tsika dzechiNguni zvakafanana zvekuti mazwi mazhinji echiNguni akava chikamu chemutauro weChindau.

Maererano naEarthy, vaNdau pavakakundwa nevaNdwandwe-Nguni, vamwe Vandau vakapotera pakati peVachopi (Copi) vakanga vaunganidza pfuti kubva kumaPutukezi kuti vazvidzivirire.[4] Zvinonzi nevamwe vanhu verudzi rweChopi vakaramba vakazvimiririra kubva kuNguni Gaza Empire. Pakuumba humambo hweGaza, Soshangane nemauto ake eNguni vakakunda vakasanganisa Vatsonga, Vashongonono, Vangomane, Vaputukezi, Vahlengwe, Vanyai, Varhonga, Vashona (Samanyika, Bazezuru, Vakaranga nevamwe.), Vasenga, Vachopi pamwe chete neMandau murudzi rutsva nevanhu pamwe chete vachinzi Vashangani.

Nekusanaya kwemvura kwenguva refu, kusimuka kweGaza, kutonga kwekutengeswa kwevaranda, uye kuwedzera kwekutonga kwemaPutukezi muMupata we Zambezi, madzishe eAfurika aimbove ane simba mudunhu reZambezi akaderera. Munzvimbo yavo, vatungamiriri vehondo vomumupata vakavaka nhare dzakasimba pakusangana kwenzizi huru, uko vakasimudza mauto ari oga ndokuvhozhokera varanda mukati. Aiva nesimba zvikuru pavakuru vehondo ava akanga ari Manuel António de Sousa, anozivikanwawo saGouveia, mugari aibva kuIndia yechiPutukezi, uyo pakazosvika pakati pezana remakore rechi19 aidzora chikamu chikuru cheMupata we Zambezi yokumaodzanyemba uye nzvimbo yakakura kwazvo kumaodzanyemba kwayo. Kuchamhembe kweZambezi, vatengesi vevaranda vechiIslam vakakwira pamasimba kubva panzvimbo yavo muAngoche, uye madzishe eYao okuchamhembe akatamira kumaodzanyemba kunzvimbo dzakakwirira dziri pedyo neRwizi Shire, uko vakanogadza simba ravo rehondo. Nekuda kwekugara uku kuChipinge, vamwe Vandau-Shangani vakagara munyika yave kunzi Mozambiki yemazuva ano nekuti zvinofanirwa kurangarirwa kuti Maputukezi neVazungu (caucasians) asati asvika muhutongi hwemakororo ari kunzi Zimbabwe ne Mozambiki zvakateerana. . Kubva kare nemazana emakore ekusanganiswa nemamwe mapoka echiShona, mutauro netsika dzechiNdau zvakashanduka . Kuroorana nevaNguni vanokunda kwakawedzera kunaka kweNguni kumutauro netsika. Chindau chekare chinogona kuve chimwe chemhando dzekare-kare pamitauro yemazuva ano yechiNguni. Zvinogoneka kuti vaNdau vekare nderimwe remarudzi emadzitateguru ekutanga evaNguni, zvakafanana neVamthethwa, Valala, ne Vadebe vanobva kuVathonga-Tekela. Izvi zvese fungidziro panguva ino uye kumwe kutsvagisa kunoda kuitwa kumisa izvi.

Muchirevo chezwi rokuti mutauro wechiNdau unonyanya kutaurwa kumatunhu ekumaodzanyemba kwedunhu re Sofala: Machanga, Chibabava, Machaze (Danda), Buzi uye Nhamatanda, Dondo ne Beira (Bangwe) uye wakafanana neShona. Nguni mazwi. Iyo zvakare inotaurwa muchidimbu muMambone (Inhambane mudunhu) neMossurize. Vanotaurawo chiPutukezi kuMozambique neChirungu muZimbabwe. MuZimbabwe, chiNdau chinotaurwa zvikuru kumatunhu eChipinge ne Chimanimani.-

Mukati menjanji pakati peBeira neZimbabwe mutauro wechiSena, waingotaurwa mubani reZambezi chete, wava rudzi rwemutauro wekutaura.

Dhemogirafiki[chinja | edit source]

Kusvika muna 1997, zvaifungidzirwa kuti muMozambiki maiva nevatauri veNdau 581 000. Kune madzinza akawanda eVandau-Shangani anogara muChamhembe cheAfurika. Musha unonzi Mbozi pari zvino unozivikanwa nezita rekuti Govhu kwaMalamulele unoumbwa nedzinza rekwaShangani rose rakaita saSithole, Miyambo, Simango, Moyana, na Mashaba vazhinji vacho vane midzi yechiNdau kunze kweVanguni kwavanobva mazita avo. Mazita ari pamusoro ndeevaNguni nekwavakabva kuZululand kwaigara vaNdwandwe vasati vatiza nekuda kweMfecane.

Chindau ndiwo mumwe wemitauro inoshandiswa mumakereke ekuBeira. Nhasi vaNdau-Shangani vanonyanyozivikanwa nemhazita emhuri anoti: Sakwinje, Semwayo, Simango, Sibiya, Dhliwayo, Dube, Makuyana, Mlambo, Mthethwa, Mhlanga, Nxumalo, Hlatshwayo, Sithole, Kwidini, Sidhile, Dhlakama, Bhila na Zharikiya. Zvakakosha kuziva kuti havasi vanhu vese vanodaidzwa nemazita aya vanganzi vaNdau kunze kwaZharikiya. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti aya mazita echiNguni anowanikwa pakati pevaNguni uye anowanikwa muZululand pamwe neMatebeleland kubva kuvanhu vasina hukama nevaNdau. Kuti unzwisise chiNdau chemazuva ano, unofanirwa kunzwisisa simba reNguni iro rakasimba kwazvo.

Mapolitiki[chinja | edit source]

Renamo, Bato re (Mozambican National Resistance Movement), rinowana rutsigiro kubva kuShangani mudunhu reSofala kuMozambiki (kunova kunobva mutungamiriri wavo Dhlakama, pamwe na Achibhishopu weCatholic weBeira), muchidimbu nekuda kwemamiriro avo ehupfumi nemagariro. Kupinda mukudyara kwemari kubva kunze kwenyika uye zvirongwa zvekusimudzira magariro nehupfumi zvebato rinotonga.

Mutungamiriri wekutanga weZANU muZimbabwe nyika isati yawana kuzvitonga kuzere ndiVaNdabaningi Sithole, vanobva pedyo negomo reSelinda. VaRobert Mugabe pavakatanga kutonga, VaSithole vakaumba bato ravo reZANU-Ndonga iro riri kuramba richiwana rutsigiro pakati peVandau-Shangani. Nekuda kwekunetsana kwaVaSithole naVaMugabe,

Mabviro eruzivo[chinja | edit source]

  1. dos Santos, J. Ethiopia Oriental, Evora, 1609, Liv. II, Cap. VIII Santos Ethiopia Oriental 1609.
  2. unod, Henri (1977), Matimu Ya Vatsonga: 1498-1650, Braamfontein: Sasavona Publishers.
  3. Broch-Due, Vigdis (2005). Violence And Belonging:The Quest For Identity In Post-Colonial Africa. Psychology Press. p. 97. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  4. Earthy, E.D. (2009), Annals of the Transvaal Museum: III. On Some Ritual Objects of the Vandau in South Chopiland Gaza, Portuguese East Africa, pp. 125‒128.