Robert Gabriel Mugabe

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Robert Mugabe (2008)

Robert Gabriel Mugabe (/muːˈɡɑːbiː/; Shona dudzo: [muɡɓe]; zvarwa 21 Kukadzi 1924) i  MuZimbabwe revolutionary ne politician ani ane nga mutungamiri we Zimbabwe kubvira 1987; a ambo led Zimbabwe se Prime gurukota kubva 1980 ku 1987. a chaired  Zimbabwe muAfrican yenyika batanidzo (ZANU) chichese kubva 1975 ku 1980 ne ane led ayo successor zvenyika bira,  ZANU – Patriotic mberi (ZANU–PF), kubvira 1980. Ideologically an muAfrican nationalist, muku  1970s ne 1980s a nongedzwa se  Marxist-Leninist nyangwe mushure  1990s mene-nongedzwa chete se  socialist; policies yake ine nga adudzira se Mugabeism.

Mugabe aiva zvarwa ku  murombo Shona mhuri mu Kutama, kunyasi Rhodesia. kutevera an fundo ku Kutama koleji ne  yunivhesiti ye svingo shuro, a ashanda se  chikoro mudzidzisi mu kunyasi Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, ne Ghana. ashatirisa ino kunyasi Rhodesia aiva  British colony governed no chena colonists, Mugabe afungata Marxism ne abatanidza muAfrican nationalist ratidziro ( oratidzira )  kudana kuitira an kuzvimiririra dema-led hunhu. mushure kubvatura anti-hurumende mashoko a aiva convicted e sedition ne imprisoned pakati 1964 ne 1974. pa batanura a atiza ku Mozambique, dzikiswa utungamiri hwake hwe ZANU, ne oversaw ZANU'S chimiro mu  Rhodesian gwenzi hondo, kurwa Ian Smith'S predominantly chena hurumende. a reluctantly atora bande ( paradzana )  mu  runyararo negotiations brokered no  batanidzwa ushe hwuno resulted mu  Lancaster imba wirirano.  wirirano agurunura chena minority tonga ne resulted mu  1980 general sarudzo, ku ipi Mugabe led ZANU-PF ku kukunda ne ava Prime gurukota re  newly renamed Zimbabwe. Mugabe'S hurongwa abhabhanuka healthcare ne fundo, and—despite ake Marxist rhetoric ne professed chipango ( panga )  kuitira  socialist society—adhered pahukuru ku conservative okonomiki policies.

Mugabe'S chokutanga odana kuitira racial reconciliation akona ku dzinde kufumuka makwikwi ( rudzi )  hubuyo ne kukura chena mbururuko. hubuyo ne Joshua Nkomo'S Zimbabwe muAfrican vanhu'S batanidzo (ZAPU) wo aserera, ne Mugabe kutswanya ZAPU-akochekera kupikisa mu Matabeleland muku  Gukurahundi pakati 1982 ne 1985; ku shomana 10,000 vanhu, munyanya Ndevere civilians, ai auraya no Mugabe'S Chishanu Brigade. kundereredza decolonization, Mugabe'S hurumende emphasised  redistribution re mhara ( ivhu )  dzosa no chena varimi ku landless blacks, pakutanga pa  "nechido seller-nechido mutengi" basis. atambudza ku  nono reti re redistribution, kubva 2000 Mugabe akurudzira  mhirizhonga seizure e chena-zvinwa mhara ( ivhu ). chikafu hufufudzwa aiva severely apfunza, generating shangwa, pasirose sanctions, ne drastic okonomiki serera. kupikisa ku Mugabe akura, particularly kubudikidza  husuduruka kuitira Democratic sanduro ( sandura ), nyangwe a aiva re-elected mu 2002, 2008, ne 2013 kubudikidza campaigns abarata no mhirizhonga, electoral fraud, ne nationalistic appeals ku musha wake Shona muvhoti pfihwa. Munyika dzose, Mugabe atuma troops ku rwa mu  chechipiri Congo hondo ne chaired  isiri-Aligned husuduruka (1986–89),  Organisation e muAfrican kubatana (1997–98), ne  muAfrican batanidzo (2015–16).

kuva abarata Zimbabwe'S zvematongerwo enyika kuitira pedyo China ukumi, Mugabe ane nga  controversial ne divisive mutiwana. a ane nga arumbidza se  revolutionary gamba re  muAfrican rusununguko shingirira ani abatsira ku sungunuka Zimbabwe kubva British colonialism, imperialism, ne chena minority tonga. Conversely, a ane nga aborongota se  dictator bvuvana kuitira okonomiki mismanagement, pfakachira huori, anti-chena racial rusaruro, ndambarukuse kodzero kauriso ( okaurisa ), suppression e zvenyika critics ne mhosva pokona vanhu.

Upenyu hwepakutanga

Mwana: 1924-45 Robert Gabriel Mugabe akaberekwa musi waFebruary 21, 1924 paguta rinonzi Kutama Mission muZimba District ye Southern Rhodesia. [3] Baba vake, Gabriel Matibiri, vaiva muvezi asi mai vake Bona vakadzidzisa katechism yechiKristu kune vana vomumusha. [4] Vakanga vadzidziswa mumabasa avo nemaJesititi, chiRoma cheRoma Katurike chakange chagadzira basa. [5] Bona naGabriel vaiva nevana vatanhatu: Miteri (Michael), Raphael, Robert, Dhonandhe (Donald), Sabina, naBridgette. [6] Vaiva vezera reZezuru, rimwe remashizha madukuduku echiShona tribe. [7] Baba vababa vaMugabe vaiva Constantine Karigamombe, vari "Matibiri", munhu ane simba ane simba, uyo akashumira Mambo Lobengula muzana remakore rechi19. [8] VaJesititi vaive vakangwara zvakanyanya uye pasi pesimba ravo Mugabe akazvidzivirira zvikuru, [5] paanovawo muKaturike ainamata. [9] Mugabe akanyanya kushevedza kuchikoro, [10] paakanga ari mwana akavanzika uye ari oga, [11] achida kuverenga ari oga pane kutamba mitambo kana kufambidzana nevamwe vana. [12] Akasweveredzwa nevakawanda vevamwe vana, avo vaimuona segomba uye mukomana wamai. [13]