Muvara

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Mavara akasiyana siyana.
Enzano yemavara akasiyana siyana.

Muvara (/muːⱱɑːrɑː/ Chirungu: Colour) kana ruvara zvinodudza kudaira kweziso richipirikira mhando dzechiedza apo richinge ragamuchira chiedza chine hurefu wemasaisai hwakasiyana. Chiedza, chidimbu chenangazira regetsimagineti (Chirungu: electromagnetic spectrum). Chiedza chinowanikwa chiine mhando dzeruvara ese anozivikanwa. Kuwonekwa kunoitwa mavara neziso kunoitika apo chiedza chinowira pachinhu chingava chipfeko kana chii. Ngatimboti chiedza chawira pachiro chitsvuku. Chinoita kuti ziso rizowona ruvara rutsvuku urwu ndechekuti, dzimwe mhando dzemuvara dzinonwira pachipfeko ichi asi chipfeko chinohwitudza ruvara rutsvuku. Nokudaro ziso rinowona ruvara rutsvuku chete.

Zvakanaka kuwonesana kuti chiedza chine hunyambiri; chingawonekwa sesebhe uye chingawonekwa semasaisai.

Sainzi yemavara dzimwe nguva inonzi kiromatikisi (chromatics), karametiri (colorimetry), kana kungonzi sainzi yemavara. Inosanganisira kufunda kwekuonekwa kwemavara neziso remunhu uye huropi, mabviro erudzi muzvinhu, tiyori yeruvara (colour theory) mu-art, uye fizikisi yegetsimagineti redhiyesheni (Chirungu: electromagnetic radiation) munzvimbo inoonekwa (ndiko kuti, izvo zvinowanzo kunzi sechiedza chete).

Tsananguro[chinja | edit source]

Nangazira yemavara inoenderera.
Nangazira yemavara onooneka.
Ruvara Wevhirandi indavhoro Furikwenzi indavhoro
Tsvuku ~ 700–635 nm ~ 430–480 THz
Ranjisi ~ 635–590 nm ~ 480–510 THz
Huroro ~ 590–560 nm ~ 510–540 THz
Zerere ~ 560–520 nm ~ 540–580 THz
Sieni ~ 520–490 nm ~ 580–610 THz
Ungu ~ 490–450 nm ~ 610–670 THz
Vhiore ~ 450–400 nm ~ 670–750 THz

Sipekitiramu yemavara.[chinja | edit source]

Getsimagineti redhiyesheni inoratidzirwa neiyo wevhirandi (kana furikwenzi) uye kusimba kwayo. Kana wevhirandi iri mukati mechiono chinoonekwa (huwandu hwe wevhirandi vanhu vanogona kuona, ingangoita kubva pa390 nm kusvika 700 nm), inozivikanwa se "chiedza chinooneka".

Mutsika dzevanhu.[chinja | edit source]

Mutsika dzevanhu venyika dzakasiyana siyana mavara anezvirevo, uye mamiriro akasiyana[1]. Izvi zvinoonekwa mushandosirwo emavara mumanyika, muenzaniso uri wekuti munyika yedu yeZimbabwe ruvara tsvuku runoonekwa seruvara reropa neupenyu nerevaya vakashaya. Kunyanya ropa revaya vakafa (vakashaya) munguva yehondo dzeChimurenga[2].

Mavara ekutanga.[chinja | edit source]

Tsvuku, Huroro neUngu (kana bhuruu) ndivo mavara anonzi mavara ekutanga. Mavara ekutanga kana (Chirungu: ma-'primary colours' ) maseti emavara chaiwo kana chiedza chemavara anogona kusanganiswa muhuwandu hwakasiyana kuti abudise (kana kuti asike) mamwe mavara.[3] Nekuda kwekusanganisa mavara maviri akasiyana kana anopfuura maviri, tinokwanisa kusika mavara matsva. Semuenzaniso, kusanganisa tsvuku nechena zvinogadzira kiwani, uye huroro netsvuku inogadzira ranjisi.

Marudzi emavara[chinja | edit source]

Mavara matema[chinja | edit source]

Nangazira yemavara matema.

Ruvara nhema ndiro ruvara wanikwa nekusavapo kana kukwana kwakazara kwechiedza chinoonekwa. Asi mavara matema akati siyanei neruvara nhema nekuti anechiedza chinoonekwa, asi chiedza chirimbijana.

Tafura yemavara matema
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
? (tematema) #0A0A0A Jet black
Nhema (tema) #000000 Black
? (Dema) #483c41 Pitch black

Mhando dzeruvara nhema.


Mavara eUngu[chinja | edit source]

Nangazira yemavara Ungu.

Mavara maUngu kana Bhuruu (shoko rinobva kuChirungu). Ruvara rweungu runodeedza kunzi ruvara tema nekuti shedhi rayo harina kuchena sehuroro kana chena.

Tafura yemavara Ungu
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yeruvara Chirungu
Ungu

Bhuruu

#0000FF Blue
? (Ungwa) #120A8F Ultramarine
?

Ungu nhema

Nheungu (?)

#000080 Navy

Dark blue

?

Radenga /Deungu

#87CEEB Sky blue
Safira #0F52BA Sapphire blue
Etsi (?) #3137FD Electric blue
Sieni #00FFFF Cyan
Tekwasi #40E0D0 Turqoise
Tiro #008080 Teal
Indigo #3F00FF Indigo

Mhando dzeruvara rweungu.


Mavara maZerere[chinja | edit source]

Nangazira yemavara ezerere.

Mhando dzeruvara rwezerere dzinogona kusiyana muhyu kiroma (hue chroma) zvichireva masimbiro kana mazara kwechiedza, kana kupenya zvinhu zviviri kana zvitatu zvinhu uwu.

Tafura yemavara mazerere
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
Zerere #008000 Green
Orivhi #98BF64 Olive green
? (Yezha) #228B22 Forest green
? (Zhedhi) #00A86B Jade green
Emurodhi #00573D Emerald green
Yeruva / Yeva #DFFF00 Chartreuse
? (Raimu) #00FF00 Lime

Mhando dzeruvara rwezerere.

Mavara maHuroro[chinja | edit source]

Nangazira yemavara mahuroro

Mavara ehuroro mavara machena muChishona nekuti mavara akajeka.

Tafura yemavara ehuroro.
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
Huroro #FFFF00 Yellow
Ndarama

Goridhe

#FFD700 Gold

Mhando dzeruvara rwehuroro.


Mavara maMbise[chinja | edit source]

Nangazira yemavara embise

Mavara mambise anovanzo onekwa pavanhu vaneganda tema.

Tafura yemuvara mbise
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
Mbise #422A14 Brown
Shava #2A0001 Mahogany
Chokoreti #7B3F00 Chocolate
Chokoreti nhema #2C1503 Dark chocolate
Kofi #6F4E37 Coffee
? (Karamero) #C68E17 Caramel
Ndarira #CD7F32 Bronze

Ruvara Mbise.


Mavara maRanjisi[chinja | edit source]

Mavara maRanjisi.

Shoko rekuti Ranjisi raisavapo muChishona nekuti vanhu vaidana zvese mavara tsvuku nemarinjisi kuti tsvuku (dzvuku) nekuda kwekuti akati fananei, uye anovanikwa panguva imwechete.

Tafura yemavara maranjisi
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
Ranjisi #FFA500 Orange
Nachisi #F28500 Tangerine
Shora #FFBF00 Amber

Zvisikwa zvineruvara rweranjisi.


Mavara maTsvuku[chinja | edit source]

Mavara matsvuku

Mavara matsvuku mavara akutsvukira seropa.

Tafura yemuvara tsvuku
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
? (Tsvukutsvuku) #FF2400 Scarlet
Tsvuku

Dzvuku

#FF0000 Red
Nundu #800000 Maroon
? #990000 Crimson
? (Ranje) #E34234 Vermilion
Rubhi #E0115F Ruby
Java #A52A2A Auburn

Zvinhu zvineruvara tsvuku.

Nangazira yemavara maKiwani

Mavara maKiwani[chinja | edit source]

Nangazira yemavara maKiwani

Mavara maKiwani anogadzirwa nekusanganisa ruvara tsvuku neruvara chena.

Tafura yemuvara tsvukuchena
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
Kiwani #FC0FC0 Pink
? (Tsvuki) #FF69B4 Hot pink
? (Serise) #DE3163 Cerise
? (Rowani) #F59FB7 Rose

Zvinhu zvineruvara rwetsvukuchena.

Mavara maHute[chinja | edit source]

Nangazira yemavara maHute.
Nangazira yemavara maHute.

Mavara mahute mavara matsvuki nekuti aripadhuze nekiwani netsvuku, uye mavara anogadzirwa nekusanganisa mavara maUngu nematsvuku.

Tafura yemuvara hute
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
Hute #A32CC4 Purple
? #A1045A Magenta
Vhiore #710193 Violet
? #E39FF6 Lavender
? #9867C5 Iris
? (Rairaki, Ririki) #B65FCF Lilac
? (Emishesi, Amishesi) #9966CC Amethyst

Zvinhu zvineruvara hute.

Mavara maPfumbu[chinja | edit source]

Nangazira ye,avara maPfumbu

Ruvara pfumbu runowanzo onekwa panguva yekunaya makore paanoshanduka kuita pfumbu.

Tafura yemuvara pfumbu
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
Pfumbu #808080 Grey
Pfumbu nhema #A9A9A9 Dark grey
Sirivha #C0C0C0 Silver
Pfumbu ungu

? (pfungu)

#6699CC Grey blue
Rasha #36454F Charcoal

Zvinhu zveruvara pfumbu.

Mavara Machena[chinja | edit source]

Ruvara chena

Mavara machena ndiwo mavara ane chiedza chinokwanisa kuoneka, uye mavara akajeka. Mavara ese anosanganiswa neruvara chena anoreuruka kudarika vara rwavo rekutanga.

Tafura yemavara machena
Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu
Chena

Jena

#FFFFFF White
Jenero #FFFDD0 Cream

Mhuka chena.

Tsananguro yemavara[chinja | edit source]

Ruvara Enzano Kodhi yemuvara Chirungu Tsananguro
Tematema (?) #0A0A0A Jet black
Nhema / tema #000000 Black
Dema (?) #483C41 Pitch black Rinobva kumashoko ekuti: Nhema neTema.
Pfumbu / Pfupfu #808080 Grey
Rasha #36454F Charcoal Rinoreva kuti charcoal kana coal muChirungu.
Pfuungu (?)

Pfumbu ungu

#6699CC Grey blue Rinosikwa nekubatanidza mavara maviri pfumbu ne ungu.
Sirivha #C0C0C0 Silver Rakabva kushoko reChirungu rekuti silver
Mbise #422A14 Brown
Shava #2A0001 Mahogany Ruvara ruri brownish-red
Chokoreti #7B3F00 Chocolate Rakabva kuChirungu chocolate
Chokoreti nhema #2C1503 Dark chocolate Rinoreva chokoreti yakasvibira kudarika mbise
Kofi #6F4E37 Coffee Rinobva kushoko reChirungu coffee
Karamero (?) #C68E17 Caramel Rinobva futi kushoko reChirungu caramel
Mbise chena #B5651D Light brown
Ndarira #CD7F32 Bronze
Tsvukutsvuku (?) #FF2400 Scarlet red Richireva ruvara tsvuku rakajekesa
Tsvuku / dzvuku #FF0000 Red
Nundu #800000 Maroon
? #990000 Crimson Hapasati paane shoko rekuti crimson muChishona
Ranje (?) #E34234 Vermillion Ranje rinobva kuRanjisi, nekuti Vermillion ine ruvara ruri

pakati petsvuku neranjisi.

Rubhi (?) #E0115F Ruby Ishoko rinobva kuChirungu ruby
? #A1045A Magenta Hapasati paane shoko rekuti magenta
Ririki (?) #B65FCF Lilac Hapana shoko
? #E39FF6 Lavender Hapana shoko
? #9867C5 Iris Hapana shoko
Hute #A32CC4 Purple Shoko rinobva kumuchero uneruvara raida kudanwa,

uye rinogona kunzi tsvubvu.

Vhiore #710193 Violet Rinonbva kuChirungu violet
Emishesi (?)

Amishesi (?)

#9966CC Amethyst Rinobva kuChirungu amethyst, Chishona hachina Th lan st
?

Nheungu (?)

Ungu nhema

#000080 Navy Ungwa rinobva kushoko rekuti gungwa (sea / of the sea).

Ruvara rwegungwa ("the colour of the sea")

Ungu tema zvinongoreva kuti ungu yakasvibira

Ungwa (?) #120A8F Ultramarine
Ungu / bhuruu #0000FF Blue Ungu rinobva kugungwa (sea) uye rinobva kumuraraungu

(rainbow), Bhuruu rakabva kuChirungu Blue

Etsi (?) #3137FD Electric blue Hapasati paane shoko
Ndungu (?) / Indigo #3F00FF Indigo Shoko rakatorwa kuChirungu
Safira / Safiri #0F52BA Sapphire
Radenga / Deungu (?)

Ungu yedenga

#87CEEB Sky blue Ishoko reinoreva kuti "of the sky", kana "colour of the sky"
Seini #00FFFF Cyan Ishoko rinobva kuChirungu cyan
Tekwasi #40E0D0 Turqoise Ishoko rinobva futi kuChirungu Turqoise
Tiro #008080 Teal Rinobva kuChirungu teal
Zerere #008000 Green
Yezha (?) #228B22 Forest green Rinoreva kuti "of the leaves", kana "colour of the leaves"
Emurodhi #00573D Emerald green Rinobva kuChirungu emerald
Raimu (?) #00FF00 Lime Rinobva wo kuChirungu lime, richireva zerere yakajeka
Yeruva / Yeva (?) #DFFF00 Chartreuse Ishoko rinoreva kuti "of the flower", richireva ruvara

rwe yellow-green kana chartreuse

Orivhi #98BF64 Olive Rinobva kuChirungu Olive
Huroro #FFFF00 Yellow
Chenero (?) #FFFCBB Light yellow Senge Jenero (cream), asi i-cream-yellow, a light yellow
Ndarama / goridhe #FFFD700 Gold
Shora #FFBF00 Amber Rinoreva ruvara ruri huroro neranjisi (shining yellow orange)
Ranjisi #FFA500 Orange
Nachisi #F28500 Tangerine
Serise #DE3163 Cerise Rinobva kushoko reChirungu cerise
Tsvuki (?) #FF69B4 Hot pink Richireva kutsvukirira
Kiwani #FC0FC0 Pink Rinobva kuChuma chekiwani (pink / rose coloured beads)
Rowani (?) #F59FB7 Rose Rinobva kuChirungu rose
Jenero / Kirimu #FFFDD0 Cream
Chena / Jena #FFFFFF White

Mavara echinyakare[chinja | edit source]

Muraraungu.

Muchiverenga zivai kuti munguva yechinyakare Vatorwa vasati vasvika kuUmambo hweMashona kuti vatengeranise machira, ndarama madhayamondi nezvimwe. Uye mavara ekutanga aionekwa muzvisikwa zvakaita se:

  • Miti
  • Pasi
  • Denga
  • Mvura
  • Mhuka
  • Vanhu (ganda, vhudzi, mazino, ropa, mukati memaoko kana pasi petsoka).

Mamwe mavara aionekwa mudenga muchimiro cheMuraraungu, kana ruvara rwedenga panguva yekuvira kwezuva.

Pakazotanga kutsinhana kweMashona neVatorwa machira nezvishongo ndopakazouuya mavara mamwe akasiyana siyana. Kutsinhana kwatanga munguva yeMapungubwe ikaenderera munguva yeHukuru hweDzimbadzamambwe (Great Zimbabwe), ikabva yawanda munguva yeHumambo hwaMutapa (Mutapa empire).


Machira emavara akasiyna[chinja | edit source]


Zvinhu zvakawanikwa pamatongo eGZ[chinja | edit source]


Zvakadaro, mavara akawanda nezvinhu zvakawanda zveChishona zvinitumidzwa nekuda kwechirevo kanachifananidzo chechinhu chacho. Enzano; Ranjisi ne hute ese mavara ari maviri akatumidzwa kuteera michero ane mavara aida kudanwa. Asi, rangarirai kuti mamwe mazita ezvinhu akabva kuChirungu nekuda kwekuti akanga asimo muChishona, kana nekuda kwekuti vanhu vakatanga kudzikisira mutauro wavo wachikudza Chirungu uyezvo mashoko akarasika. Enzano; Vhiore kana Rubhi mashoko akatorwa kuChirungu.

Mamwe mashoko asimo muChishona anotorwa kumimwe mitauro yechiBantu, kunyanya chiNdebele nemimwe mitauro iri muZimbabwe. Enzano; Goridhe (Ndarama) ishoko rakabva kumutauro wechiNguni.


Mavara edenga.[chinja | edit source]

Matumidzo emavara[chinja | edit source]

  • Shava, (deep reddish-brown)
  • java, mushava (light brown). Domboshava, javavhu, javangwe, gadzijava.
  • Tema, dema, nhema, svipa, svipu, sviba kana dzvipa (Black)
  • Hute (Purple)
  • Tsvubvu (black-purple fruit)
  • Nundu (Maroon)
  • Nachisi (deep orange coloured fruit, a tangerine)
  • Chuma cheKiwani (pink/rose coloured beads).
  • Shora, Mbise (amber, brown).
  • Hutsaratsa (check).
  • Mbarakate (Small patch of colour on an animal or object).
  • Gungwa (ocean, sea, a deep blue coloured body of water)
  • Denga (light blue coloured atmosphere)
  • Rangi (colour, sky, shade, purple, blue, first)

Mamwe mashoko[chinja | edit source]

  • Deko renzviru (Dark brown (lit: shell of fruit of Wild Medlar). Ano utema hwedeko renzviru: he is dark brown in colour.
  • Chisambi (Red check pattern).
  • Manjenjenje Brilliance (loudness) of colours; 2. Bright flames).

Mashoko aya anotaurwa kuKalanga:

  • Panguka (become discolored; fade as of a flower or some color).
  • Pangula (cause to become discolored).

Mavara muChiBantu[chinja | edit source]

Mimwe mitauro yeZimbabwe[chinja | edit source]

Chindebele | IsiNdebele[chinja | edit source]

MuChindebele (Kana Chindebe) shoko rekuti muvara kana ruvara rinonzi umbala. Zvinozivikwa kuti muvara kana ruvara muChishona zvinoreva ruvara rimwe asi kana awanda anonzi mavara. MuChindebele mavara anonzi imibala.

Mazita e mavara muChindebele anodeedzwa sezvakanyorwa pazasi.

  • Mnyama = Nhema
  • Mhlophe = Chena
  • Nsundu / Umdaka = Mbise
  • Kubomvu = Tsvuku
  • Lithanga = Huroro
  • Kuluhlaza = Zerere (inogona kuva Ungu futi)
  • Khaki = Kaki
  • Lithuli / Okuintwala / Okuyimpunga = grey
  • Okiyisibhakabhaka = Radenga / Deungu (sky blue)
  • Okulizulu (Bulu) = Ungu (Bhuruu) [4]

ChiVenda | Tshivenda[chinja | edit source]

Chivenda kana ChiVhenda (mururimi rwe Mashona), mumwe mutauro unotaurwa muNyika yeZimbabwe. MuChivenda shoko rekuti muvara rinonzi muvhala. Mazita e mavara muChivenda akanyorwa pazasi.

  • Mutswu = Black
  • Mutshena = Chena
  • Museṱha = Pfumbu
  • Lutombo = Ungu
  • Mudala = Zerere
  • Ṱaḓa = Huroro
  • Swiri = Ranjisi
  • Mutswuku = tsvuku
  • Meruni = Nundu
  • Buraweni = Mbise
  • Pinki = Kiwani [5]

Chitswana | Setswana[chinja | edit source]

Chitswana kana Setswana mumwe mutauro pa mitauro 16 inotaurwa muNyika yeZimbabwe. Shoko rekuti mavara muChitswana rinonzi Mabala. Mazita e mavara muChitswana akanyorwa pazasi.

  • Bontsho = Nhema
  • Bosweu = chena
  • Botuba = pfumbu
  • Bothokwa/ Borokwa= mbise
  • Botala jwa loapi = Ungu
  • Seloale / Phepole = Hute
  • Bohibitswana / Pinki = Kiwani
  • Bohibidu = tsvuku
  • Namuni = Ranjisi
  • Lephutsi/ Bosetlha / Serolwana = Huroro
  • Botala jwa matlhare = Zerere

Chixhosa | IsiXhosa[chinja | edit source]

Mavara muChixhosa anonzi Imibala.

  • Mnyama = nhema
  • Mhlophe = chena
  • Bomvu = tsvuku
  • Lubhelu / mthubi = huroror
  • Luhlaza = ungu, zerere
  • Ntsundu = mbise
  • Bomvana / Pinki = Kiwani
  • Orenji = Ranjisi
  • Ngwevu = Pfumbu
  • Mfusa = Hute
  • Tyheli = Shora
  • Bomvu-gwanqa = Java (auburn; kwete shava (mahoganny))
  • Nocwambu = Jenero
  • Ngqombela = ? (Chirungu: Crimson)

Chitonga | ChiTonga[chinja | edit source]

Chitonga semimwe 16 mituaro inotaurwa muNyika yeZimbabwe. Mavara muChitonga zvinoreva kuti musyobo.

  • Tete / Nyanzabili = zerere
  • Mukuba = Ranjisi
  • Uusiya = nhema
  • Uusalala = tsvuku
  • Uutaba = chena

Chitsonga | Xitsonga[chinja | edit source]

Muhlovo ishoko remaTsonga rekudeedza iro shoko rinozivikwa neMashona se muvara.

  • Basa = chena
  • Nkuma = pfumbu
  • Ntima = nhema
  • Ribungwa = mbise
  • Rihlaza = Zerere
  • Tshwuka = tsvuku
  • Wasi = Ungu
  • Xitshopana = huroro [6]

Chichewa | Nyanya[chinja | edit source]

MuChichewa shoko rekuti Mitundi zvinoreva kuti Mavara.

  • Kuda = Black
  • Yera = chena
  • Wofiira = tsvuku
  • Kamtambo = ungu
  • Chikasu = huroro
  • Abiriwiri = zerere
  • Ndimwi = ranjisi

Mimwe Mitauro yeChiBantu[chinja | edit source]

  • Nyungwe vanoti mtundu (colour) kureva ruvara. Mamwe mazwi: -svipirira (n. green) kureva kusvipirira.
  • VaNgala neVaBwisi vanoti langi kana ba langi pakuwanda (colour).
  • VaYao vanoti lusamba (green coloured).
  • VaLomwe vanoti ekore (n. colour).
  • Chewa vanoti lunga (purple).
  • VaMambwe vanoti cifungo (violet-coloured).
  • Fwe vanoti mu-bara (colour, spot, stripe).
  • Takwane vanoti musawo (n. colour) kureva muvara.
  • VaZigula vanoti rangi kana marangi (1. colour, 2. paint, 3. coloured inks).
  • Zigula vanoti nili (n. blue).
  • VaTonga vanoti tete kana nyanzabili (v. green) kureva girinhi.
  • Venda vanoti vhudala (n. green).
  • Lozi vanoti butala kana tala (n. greenness. green colour).
  • VaGwere vanoti kitaka (dark brown colour).

Marefurenzi[chinja | edit source]

  1. enwiki: colour
  2. snwiki: Tsvuku (Ruvara)
  3. enwiki: Shades of blue
  4. enwiki: 1.2 Iridescent electric blue Electric blue (colour)
  5. enwiki: Shades of green
  6. enwiki: Jade
  7. enwiki: Colours and symbolisms Flag of Zimbabwe
  8. Di Piazza, Francesca (2005). Zimbabwe in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. pp. 69–. ISBN 9780822523994.
  9. Bruce MacEvoy. "Do 'Primary' Colors Exist?" (imaginary or imperfect primaries section Archived 2008-07-17 at the Wayback Machine). Handprint. Accessed 10 August 2007.
  10. Gary Westfahl (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-0-313-32951-7.
  11. Ann Hills, 8 August 1988, Great Zimbabwe trading history
  12. Chirikure S., Moultrie T., Bandama F., Dandara C. & Manyaga M., June 2017, What was the population of Great Zimbabwe (CE1000-1800)?
  1. Gary Westfahl (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-0-313-32951-7.
  2. Di Piazza, Francesca (2005). Zimbabwe in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. pp. 69–. ISBN 9780822523994.
  3. Bruce MacEvoy. "Do 'Primary' Colors Exist?" (imaginary or imperfect primaries section Archived 2008-07-17 at the Wayback Machine). Handprint. Accessed 10 August 2007.
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