Africa

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Africa ndiro ziwumbe riri panzvimbo yechipiri pakukura kwenharaunda uye Africa ndiyo yechipiri pakuwanda kwehugari hwavanhu ichitevera Asia. Nharaunda yeAfrica yakakura kusvika 30.2 million km², izvi zvichisanganisira zvitsuwa zviri pedyo nayo. Chikamu chinosvika 6% yenharaunda yeEarth chinotorwa ne ziwumbe reAfrica uye chikamu chinosvika 20.4% chevhu chiri muAfrica.

Africa yakapoteredzwa ne: gungwa reMediteranean kuMaodzanyemba; gungwa reIndian Ocean kuMabvazuva nekuChamhembe; negungwa reAtlantic kuMadokero nekuChamhembe. Madagascar ndiyo chitsuwa chikuru chinoverengwa kuva mudunhu reAfrica. Zvimwe zvitsuwa zvinosanganisira: Seychelles; Mauritius; Cape Verde; Equitorial Guinea; Robben Island; Zanzibar nezvimwewo zvidiki.

Africa ine vanhu vanosvika 1.0 billion vazhinji vacho vanhu vatema.

Vanhu vekuEurope vakapamba Africa mumwaka wechizana 19 (19th century); pakazopera mwaka wechizana 20 Africa yose yanga yawana rusununguko. Ghana ndiyo yakatanga kuwana rusununguko mugore ra1957 , Namibia ndiyo yakapedzisira mugore ra1990.

Taranyika[chinja | edit source]

Africa inopatsanurana neEurope pagungwa reMediterranean ichinobatana neAsia paSuez panova panocheka napo muronga Suez Canal. Dunhu reSinai riri mhiri kwemuronga Suez Canal munyika yeEgypt rinoverengwa kunzi riri muAfrica.

Nzvimbo iri kwakanyanya kuenda kuMaodzanyemba inonzi Ras ben Sakka, Tunisia (37°21' N) ; iri kwakanyanya kuenda kuChamhembe inonzi Cape Agulhas muSouth Africa (34°51'15" S). Pakati penzvimbo idzi pane nhambwe inokwana 8000km. Kwakanyanya kuenda kuMabvazuva kune Ras Hafun iri muSomalia (51°27'52" E); kwakanyanya kuenda kuMadokero kune Cape Verde (17°33'22" W). Kubva paRas Hafun kusvika kuCape Verde pane nhambwe inosvika 7,400km. Muganhu wemahombekombe eAfrica negungwa wakareba 26,000km.

Nyika hombesa muAfrica inonzi Algeria, nyika dukusa inonzi Seychelles inova chaunga chezvitsuwa zviri kuMabvazuva kweAfrica. Nyika dukusa paziwumbe rakabatana inonzi Gambia.

Vanhu vemuAfrica[chinja | edit source]

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Huwandu hwevagari veAfrica hwakakwira zvakanyanya pamakore makumi mana (40) apfuura, nokudaro Africa ine vanhu vazhinji vechidiki. Mune dzimwe nyika dzeAfrica chikamu chinodarika 50% yevanhu vari pasi pamakore 25 ekuberekwa. Huwandu hwevanhu muAfrica hwakakwira kubva pa 221 million muna 1950 kusvika pa 1.0 billion muna 2009.

Marudzi evanhu vanotaura mitauro yechiBantu ndivo vakawanda mudunhu rinobva pakati peAfrica zvichienda kuchamhembe nekuchamhembe kwakadziva kumabvazuva. Mudunhu iri muno wanikwawo marudzi vatematema vechiNile vanowanikwa kuSouthern Sudan nekuMabvazuva kweAfrica, pamwe nemaSwahili uye maKhoikhoi vanowanikwa kuchamhembe kweAfrica. Marudzi emaKhoikhoi ndiwo anonzi akatanaga kusvika kuchamhembe kweAfrica kuchizotevera vatauri vendimi dzechiBantu. MaKhoikhoi ndivo vane rudzi runonzi San kana kuti rwainzi Bushmen kare.

KuMaodzanyemba kweAfrica kune mapoka maviri: Berber neArab kumadokero; vaEgypt nevaLibya kumavirira. Verudzi rwechiArab vakasvika mudunhu iri mwaka wechizana 7, vakaunza mutauro weArabic nechinamato cheIslam kunzvimno idzi. Vanhu veMarudzi aShem vakauyawo mudunhu iri vachisanganisira: vaPhoenician nevaHysko - maGreek nemaRoman vakagarawo munzvimbo iyi. Verudzi Berber ndivo ruzhinji munyika yeMorroco uye muAlgeria mune maBerber vane chitsama chakati kuti. Rudzi urwu ndirwo rune vanhu vanogara mugwenga reSahara kunyanya.

Munyika dzeEritrea neEthiopia mune vaAmhara neTigryans vanotaura mitauro yemarudzi aShem iri pamupanda wendimi dzeAfro-Asiatic. Mudunhu rimwechetero mune vaOromo nevaSomali vanotaura mitauro yemarudzi aCush iri pamupanda wendimi dzeAfro-Asiatic.

Mumwaka wakanga Africa ichiri pasi peVarungu kwakanga kuine varungu munyika zhinji asi iye zvino vasara vane chitsama munyika shoma. Mumakore akawana nyika dzeAfrica kuzvitonga varungu vakatama kubva munyika dzinoti: Algeria, Kenya, Congo, Rhodesia, Mozambique neAngola. Zvinofungirwa kuti maPortuguese vanokwana 1.0 millin vakabuda muAfrica mumwaka 1960-1979. Parizvino varungu vanowanikwa vashoma munyika dzinoti: South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia neRéunion. Nyika ine varungu vakawanda ndiyo South Africa uye nyika iyi ndiyo ine verudzi rwechiJudah zvakanyanya muAfrica - zvinonzi South Africa ine 71,000 verudzi rwemaJudah. Marudzi ane madzitateguru vekuEurope anosanganisira, Afrikaner, Anglo-Africans (vakabva Britain) uye Coloureds.

Kuuya kweVarungu vakauya nechitsama chevanhu vakabva kuAsia zvikurusei marudzi eIndia. Misha inogara marudzi echiIndia inowanikwa muSouth Africa uye muKenya neTanzania. Zvitsuwa zviri mugungwa Indian Ocean zvakagarwa vevanhu vakabva kuAsia - imwe nguva vairoorana neVanhu vemuAfrica pamwe neveEurope. Vanhu vari muMadagascar ndeverudzi rweAustronesian asi vanosangana nemarudzi anoti Bantu, Arab, Indian and European. Mumwaka wachizana 20 kumahombekombe eAfrica kumabvazuva nekumadokero kwakasvikavo vane chitsama vemarudzi eku Lebanon neChina.

Mitauro[chinja | edit source]

Pakuverengwa kwemitauro yemuAfrica , kunonzi ziwumbe iri rine mitauro inosvika zviuru zviviri, (2000). Mitauro iyi mizhinji ndeye muAfrica asi kune imwewo yakauya kubva kuEurope neAsia. Kunonzi Africa ndiyo nzvimbo ine vanhu vanotaura mitauro mizhinji pane dzimwe dzose.

Nzizi dzeAfrica[chinja | edit source]

Rwizi Nile[chinja | edit source]

Rwizi Nile ndirwo rwakanyanya kureba Pasirose ruchiyerera nhambwe inoita 6,650km. Nile inopinda munyika dzinoti: Burundi; Rwanda; Democratic Republic of Congo; Tanzania; Kenya; Uganda; Ethiopia neEgypt.

Rwizi Zambezi[chinja | edit source]

KuChamhembe kweAfrica, Rwizi Zambezi ndirwo rwizi rukuru rwakareba 3,540km. parwizi urwu ndipo panowanikwa mapopoma anonzi Victoria Falls ari pamuganhu panosangana Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia neBotswana. Mamwe mapopoma ari parwizi Zamabezi anosanganisira: Chavuma Falls iri pamuganhu weAngola neZambia; Ngonye Falls neSioma Falls kuMadokero kweZambia.

Njodzi muAfrica[chinja | edit source]

  • Mugore ra2011 mumwedzi waMarch nyika yeJapan yakaita kudengenyeka kwenyika kwakasumudza mvura kubva mugungwa ikaita mafashama padunhu. Chiitiko ichi chakaparadza zvivakwa zvizhinji nehupenyu hwevanhu.
  • KuChamhembe kweAfrica kundengenyeka kwenyika kushoma; mugore ra2001 South Africa, Botswana neZimbabwe dzakanzwawo kundengenyeka kwenyika asi hapana zvivakwa zvakaparadzwa. Padambudziko iri musiki wakati ropafadza mudunhu reAfrica.


Ziwumbe


Africa
Algeria | Angola | Benin | Botswana | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cameroon | Cape Verde | Central African Republic | Chad | Comoros | Democratic Republic of the Congo | Republic of the Congo | Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) | Djibouti | Egypt | Equatorial Guinea | Eritrea | Ethiopia | Gabon | Gambia | Ghana | Guinea | Guinea-Bissau | Kenya | Lesotho | Liberia | Libya | Madagascar | Malawi | Mali | Mauritania | Mauritius | Morocco | Mozambique | Namibia | Niger | Nigeria | Rwanda | São Tomé and Príncipe | Senegal | Seychelles | Sierra Leone | Somalia | South Africa | South Sudan | Sudan | Swaziland | Tanzania | Togo | Tunisia | Uganda | Zambia | Zimbabwe