Afurika

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Afurika ndiro ziwumbe riri panzvimbo yechipiri pakukura kwenharaunda uye Afurika ndiyo yechipiri pakuwanda kwehugari hwavanhu ichitevera Ezhiya. Nharaunda ye Afurika yakakura kusvika 30.2 miriyoni km², izvi zvichisanganisira zvitsuwa zviri pedyo nayo. Chikamu chinosvika 6% yenharaunda ye Rinopasi chinotorwa ne ziwumbe reAfurika uye chikamu chinosvika 20.4% chevhu chiri muAfurika.

Afurika yakapoteredzwa ne: Bhahari re Medhiteraniya kuMaodzanyemba; Gungwa re India kuMabvazuva nekuChamhembe; ne Gungwa re Atlandiki kuMadokero nekuChamhembe. Matagadzikwa (Madhagaska) ndiyo chitsuwa chikuru chinoverengwa kuva mudunhu re Afurika. Zvimwe zvitsuwa zvinosanganisira: Seisheri; Morishasi; Kabho Vherite; Ghini Yomutsazanisi; Chitsuwa cha Robheni (kureva Robben); Zanzibhari nezvimwewo zvidiki.

Afurika ine vanhu vanosvika 1.2 billion (2016) vazhinji vacho vanhu vatema.

Vanhu vekuYuropu vakapamba Africa muzanagore rechi 19 (19th century); pakazopera mwaka wechizana 20 Afurika yose yanga yawana rusununguko. Ghana ndiyo yakatanga kuwana rusununguko mugore ra1957, Namibhiya ndiyo yakapedzisira mugore ra1990.

Taranyika[chinja | edit source]

Afurika inopatsanurana neYuropu paBhahari re Medhiteraniya ichinobatana ne Ezhiya pa Muronga we Swezi panova panocheka napo Muronga we Swezi. Peninzura re Sinai riri mhiri kweMuronga we Swezi munyika ye Khemeti (Ijipita) iri kumaodzanyemba eAfurika.

Nzvimbo iri kwakanyanya kuenda kuMaodzanyemba inonzi Ras ben Sakka, Tunisia (37°21' N) ; iri kwakanyanya kuenda kuChamhembe inonzi Kabho Agurhasi muAfurika Chamhembe (34°51'15" S). Pakati penzvimbo idzi pane nhambwe inokwana 8000km. Kwakanyanya kuenda kuMabvazuva kune Ras Hafun iri muSomariya (51°27'52" E); kwakanyanya kuenda kuMadokero kune Kabho Vherite (17°33'22" W). Kubva paRas Hafun kusvika kuKabho Vherite pane nhambwe inosvika 7,400km. Muganhu wemahombekombe eAfrica negungwa wakareba 26,000km.

Nyika hombesa muAfrica inonzi Algeria, nyika dukusa inonzi Seychelles inova chaunga chezvitsuwa zviri kuMabvazuva kweAfrica. Nyika dukusa paziwumbe rakabatana inonzi Gambia.

Vanhu vemuAfrica[chinja | edit source]

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Huwandu hwevagari veAfurika hwakakwira zvakanyanya pamakore makumi mana (40) apfuura, nokudaro Afurika ine vanhu vazhinji vechidiki. Mune dzimwe nyika dze Afurika chikamu chinodarika 50% yevanhu vari pasi pamakore 25 ekuberekwa. Huwandu hwevanhu muAfurika hwakakwira kubva pa 221 miriyoni muna 1950 kusvika pa 1.0 bhiriyoni muna 2009.

Marudzi evanhu vanotaura mitauro ye Chibantu ndivo vakawanda mudunhu rinobva pakati peAfurika zvichienda kuchamhembe nekuchamhembe kwakadziva kumabvazuva. Mudunhu iri muno wanikwawo marudzi vatematema vechiNairi vanowanikwa kuChamhembe che Sudhani nekuMabvazuva kweAfurika, pamwe ne Vaswahili uye Vakhoikhoi vanowanikwa kuchamhembe kwe Afurika. Marudzi eVahoikhoi ndiwo anonzi akatanaga kusvika kuchamhembe kweAfurika kuchizotevera vatauri vendimi dzechiBantu. Vakhoikhoi ndivo vane rudzi runonzi Vasan kana kuti rwainzi Bushmen kare.

KuMaodzanyemba kwe Afurika kune mapoka maviri: Vabheribhe neVaarabhu kumadokero; Vaijipita ne Varibhiya kumavirira. Verudzi rwechiArabhu vakasvika mudunhu iri mwaka wechizana 7, vakaunza mutauro we Chiarabhu nechinamato che Uyisalama kunzvimno idzi. Vanhu veMarudzi aShemu vakauyawo mudunhu iri vachisanganisira: Vafonisi (Phoenician) ne Vahysko - Vagiriki ve Varhoma vakagarawo munzvimbo iyi. Verudzi rwechiBheribhe ndivo ruzhinji munyika ye Moroko uye muArujeriya mune Mabheribhe vane chitsama chakati kuti. Rudzi urwu ndirwo rune vanhu vanogara mugwenga re Sahara kunyanya.

Munyika dze Eriteriya ne Itopiya mune Vaamhara ne Vatigiriya vanotaura mitauro ye Marudzi echiShemu iri pamupanda wendimi dze Afurika-Ezhiya. Mudunhu rimwechetero mune Vaoromo ne Vasomari vanotaura mitauro ye Marudzi echiKushi iri pamupanda wendimi dze Afurika-Ezhiya.

Mumwaka wakanga Afurika ichiri pasi peVarungu kwakanga kuine varungu munyika zhinji asi iye zvino vasara vane chitsama munyika shoma. Mumakore akawana nyika dze Afurika kuzvitonga varungu vakatama kubva munyika dzinoti: Arujeriya, Kenya, Kongo, Rhodhezhiya, Mazambuko ne Angola. Zvinofungirwa kuti Vaputukezi vanokwana 1.0 millin vakabuda muAfurika mumwaka 1960-1979. Parizvino varungu vanowanikwa vashoma munyika dzinoti: Afurika Chamhembe, Zimbabwe, Namibhiya ne Rhewuniyone (kureva Reunion). Nyika ine varungu vakawanda ndiyo South Africa uye nyika iyi ndiyo ine verudzi rwechiJudha zvakanyanya muAfurika- zvinonzi Afurika Chamhembe ine 71,000 verudzi rwe Vajudha. Marudzi ane madzitateguru vekuYuropu anosanganisira, Vafurikana (kureva Afrikaner), Vangirofurikani (kureva Anglo-Africans) (vakabva Bhuritani) uye Makaradhi.

Kuuya kwe Varungu vakauya nechitsama chevanhu vakabva kuEzhiya zvikurusei marudzi eIndia. Misha inogara marudzi echiIndia inowanikwa muAfurika Chamhembe uye muKenya neTanzania. Zvitsuwa zviri muBhahari re India zvakagarwa vevanhu vakabva kuEzhiya- imwe nguva vairoorana neVaafurika pamwe ne Vayuropu. Vanhu vari muMadhagaska ndeverudzi rwe Ostirayanezhi asi vanosangana nemarudzi anoti Vabantu, Vaarabhu, Vaindia ne Vayuropu. Mumwaka wachizana 20 kumahombekombe eAfrica kumabvazuva nekumadokero kwakasvikavo vane chitsama vemarudzi eku Rebhanoni ne Chayina.

Mitauro[chinja | edit source]

Pakuverengwa kwemitauro yemuAfurila , kunonzi ziwumbe iri rine mitauro inosvika zviuru zviviri, (2000). Mitauro iyi mizhinji ndeye muAfurika asi kune imwewo yakauya kubva kuYuropu ne Ezhiya. Kunonzi Afurika ndiyo nzvimbo ine vanhu vanotaura mitauro mizhinji pane dzimwe dzose.

Nzizi dzeAfrica[chinja | edit source]

Rwizi Nile[chinja | edit source]

Rwizi Nairi ndirwo rwakanyanya kureba Pasirose ruchiyerera nhambwe inoita 6,650km. Nile inopinda munyika dzinoti: Vurundi; Rwanda; Utemabanze we Rudhende rwe Vukongo; Tanzania; Kenya; Vuganda; Itopiya ne Khemeti (Ijipita).

Rwizi Zambezi[chinja | edit source]

KuChamhembe kwe Afurika, Rwizi Zambezi ndirwo rwizi rukuru rwakareba 3,540km. parwizi urwu ndipo panowanikwa mapopoma anonzi Mosi Oa Tunya ari pamuganhu panosangana Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibhiya ne Vutswana. Mamwe mapopoma ari parwizi Zamabezi anosanganisira: Chavuma Falls iri pamuganhu weAngola ne Zambia; Ngonye Falls ne Sioma Falls kuMadokero kwe Zambia.

Njodzi muAfrica[chinja | edit source]

  • Mugore ra 2011 mumwedzi wa Kurume nyika ye Japani yakaita kudengenyeka kwenyika kwakasumudza mvura kubva mugungwa ikaita mafashama padunhu. Chiitiko ichi chakaparadza zvivakwa zvizhinji nehupenyu hwevanhu.
  • KuChamhembe kweAfurika kundengenyeka kwenyika kushoma; mugore ra 2001 Afurika Chamhembe, Vutswana ne Zimbabwe dzakanzwawo kundengenyeka kwenyika asi hapana zvivakwa zvakaparadzwa. Padambudziko iri musiki wakati ropafadza mudunhu re Afurika.


Ziwumbe

Utemabanze we Rudhende rweVuarabhu rweSaharawiSomarirandi

Mavuso anozivikanwa zvishoma

(Speini) Canary Islands / Ceuta / Melilla • (Putugaro) Madeira • (Furanzi) Mayotte / Réunion • (United Kingdom) Saint Helena / Ascension Island / Tristan da CunhaSahara ye Madokero

Zvisi ne Materitori ekunze