Mwaka yepaNyika

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Tsanangudzo dzemazwi anoshandiswa[chinja | edit source]

Kati - iri rimwe izwi rinoreva mwaka yepanyika - season in English.

Akiso (Axis)- uyu mutsetse uri pakati pechiumbwa unoti zviri kumativi ose emutsetse iwoyu zvinenge zvakafanana nekuenzanza huremu nekuumbwa kwazvo. Takatarisana neEarth, akiso iyi ndiyo monerapo apo panoziririka Earth kamwe pamusi mumwe - izvi zvinokonzera kubuda nokudoka kwezuva. Akiso iyi mutsetse unobatananidza North pole neSouth pole. Earth inoziririka kamwe pamusi umwe ichizvimonerera paAkiso iyoyi - kamwe pa24 maawa.

Denderende (Ellipse) - iri zita rinoreva munyonga uri pamutsendo, unoonekwa panochekwa charaka zvichitevedza mutsendo nenzira inopa munyonga wakavharwa kwese (closed curve). Izvi zvinoreva kuti mutsendo wacho unocheka nenzira yokuti chiumbwa chinosara pachekwa chine munyonga chete pasina mutsetse wakati twasa; mutsendo haucheke hwaro kana chisuvi chiri pacharaka. Denderende harisi denderedzwa asi rinoda kuita sedenderedzwa rine kuumbwa kwezai.

Boterekwa, (Orbit) - iri zita rinoreva nzira inofambwa nayo neEarth apo inenge ichipoterera zuva (sun) kamwe pagore kana kuti pamisi 365. Boterekwa reEarth rine kuumbwa kwakaita denderende. Iri zita rinoshandiswawo kutsanangudza nzira dzinofambwa nedzimwe nyeredzi (planets) padzinopoterera zuva

Mutsendo (Plane, flat area) izwi rinoreva uso hwakatichechetere kunge pamusoro pemvura. Mutsendo unogonga kunge wakamiswa wakaita mutwi kana kurara kuti sandarara kana kurereka neipi zvayo gonyo. Mutsendo uso hune nzenda mbiri (2-dimensions)- hwasha nehurefu; mutsendo hauna hudzamu. Earth inoita dendera (revolves) iri pamutsendo wedenderende (elliptical plane) unocheka nepakati pezuva (sun).

Mutsazanisi (equator) mutsetse unopangidza panosangana uso hweurungano nemutsendo une goko rehuremu uye wakarurama neakiso yeurungano yacho. Kureva kuti mutsendo uyu wakaita mutwi neaksio uye kuti wakatakura Gokwe rehuremu (centre of mass) yeurungano yacho. Iri zita rinoshandiswazve pakutsangudza kuumbwa kweRinopasi, (Earth). Mutsazanisi une nhambwe dzakaenzana kubva kuNorth pole ne South pole panzvimbo dzose.

North pole ndipo papoyindi panosangana uso neakiso yekuzeya yeRinopasi (Earth), kuri kuMaodzanyemba kweRinopasi, riri divi rakapesana neSouth pole. Kana takatarisa kuMabvazuva, North pole inenge yakarurama kuruboshwe.

South pole ndipo papoyindi panosangana uso neakiso yekuzeya yeRinopasi (Earth), kuri kuChamhembe kweRinopasi. Kana takatarisa kuMabvazuva, South pole inenge yakarurama kurudyi.

Muyeramwaka, (Latitude) mitsetse inobatanidza nzvimbo dzine nhambwe yegonyo yakaenzana kana gonyo richipimwa kubva paMutsazanisi zvichienda kuMaodzanyemba kana kuChamhembe kweMutsazanisi. Latitude inoverengwa ichibva paMutsazanisi uyo unopiwa nhamba 0o. Nhamba yelatitude inokwira zvichienda kuNorth pole - nhamba dzichipiwa vara (+), kudzamara dzasvika pa +90o. Nhamba yelatitude inodzika zvichenda kuSouth pole, nhamba dzichipiwa vara (-), kudzamara dzasvika pa -90o. Izvi zvinoreva kuti latitude 20o iri kuMaodzanyemba kweMutsazanisi; latitude -30o kana kuti 30oS iri kuChamhembe kweMutsazanisi. Mepu inotaridza mitsetse yelatitude ichibva kamadokero kuenda kumabvazuva.

Muyeranhambo (Longitude) mitsetse inobatanidza nzvimbo dzine nhambwe yegonyo yakaenzana kana gonyo richipimwa kubva paPrime (Greenwich) zvichienda kuMabvazuva kana kuMadokero ePrime Meridian. Longitude inoverengwa ichibva paPrime Meridian iyo inopiwa nhamba 0o. Nhamba yelongitude inokwira zvichienda kuMabvazuva - nhamba dzichipiwa vara (+), kudzamara dzasvika pa +180o. Nhamba yelongitude inodzika zvichenda kuMadokero, nhamba dzichipiwa vara (-), kudzamara dzasvika pa -180o. Izvi zvinoreva kuti longitude +20o iri kuMabvazuva kwePrime Meridian; longitude -30o iri kuMadokero kwePrime Meridian.

Dendera (Revolution) izwi rinoreva kupoterera kunoita Earth ichitendera zuva. Dendera rinotanga nekuperera panzvimbo imwechete - ipapo paratangira ndipo parinogumira kuverengwa. Earth inoita dendera kamwe (1) pamazuva 365 kana kuti pagore.

Kuzeya neDendera reEarth[chinja | edit source]

Kuzeya. Shoko rokuti kuzeya kweEarth rinoreva kuziririka kunoita nyika paAkiso inobatanidza North pole neSouth pole. Earth inoita monerapo ichiziririka paAkiso iyoyi. Kana tichitarisa North pole kubva muchadenga nyika inoratidzika ichiziririka kuenda nerudzivo rwunopesana newachi - counter-clockwise. Kana kuri kuSouth pole inotaridzika ichitenderera nerudzivo rwunotevedza wachi - clockwise. Kuziririka kunoita nyika ndiko kunoita kuti kuve neusiku nemasikati; nyika inoziririka kamwe (1) panguva inoita 24 maaawa. Pane ipi zvayo nguva: hafu yenyika inenge yakataira zuva iri muchiedza ari masikati; imwe hafu inenge iri murima kudivi risiri kuwana mirazvo yezuva. Saka panyika panogara paine denderedzwa rinotara muganhu pakati perima nechiedza unonzi Denderedzwa reChiedza - Circle of Illumination.

Dendera. Shoko rokuti dendera rinoreva kupoterera kunoita Earth ichitendera zuva. Earth inoita dendera kamwe (1) pamisi 365,25. Dendera rinotanga nekuperera panzvimbo imwechete - ipapo paratangira ndipo parinogumira kuverengwa - nyika ichizotangazve kutenderera nenzira iyoyo imwechete. Nzira inotenderera nayo nyika tichaidana kuti boterekwa; nzira iyi ine kuumbwa kwedenderende kwete denderedzwa. Nokuda kwekuti boterekwa iri idenderende, nhambwe iri pakati penyika nezuva inosiyana mukufamba kwegore - asi izvi sandizvo zvinokonzera mwaka yepanyika.

Kutsveyama kweAkiso yeEarth[chinja | edit source]

Sokutaurwa kwaitwa, Earth inoita dendera (revolves) iri pamutsendo wedenderende (elliptical plane) unochekana neboterekwa rinofamba neEarth kamwe pagore. Panguva imwe chete, Earth inoita monerapo ichiziririka paAkiso inobatanidza North neSouth pole. Akiso yeEarth haina kururama pamutsendo wedenderende asi yakatsveyama negonyo re 23.5o. gonyo riri pakati pemutsendo denderende neAkiso yeEarth haichinje; Akiso inoramba yakanongedza divi rimwe uye yakatsveyama negonyo rimwe re 23.5o. Asi chinoshanduka kuti idivi ripi reAkiso riri pedyo nezuva. Divi riri pedyo nezuva rinowana mirazvo yakanyanya - iri divi ndiro rinenge riri mumwaka wekupisa, zhizha (summer), divi riri kure rinenge riri muchando (winter).

Mazuva ekurangarira[chinja | edit source]

Zuvaragodza (Solstice)

Mazuva eZuvaragodza anoitika June 20-21 neDecember 20-21.

  • Pamazuva June 20-21 Earth inenge iri panzvimbo muboterekwa yokuti North pole inenge yakanongedza kuzuva yakatsveyamira kuzuva ne 23.5o. Denderedzwa rechiedza rinenge riri panzvimbo yokuti North pole haipinde murima zvokuti North pole inowana 24 maawa echiedza. Denderedzwa reChiedza rinenge rakaita muganhu palatitude 66.5oN panova ndipo panotangira Arctic Circle. Panguva imwechete, South pole inenge yakanongedza kwakapesana nezuva, denderedzwa rechiedza rinenge riri panzvimbo yokuti South pole inoramba iri murima. South pole inowana 24 maawa erima.

Pamazuva aya, nzvimbo dzose dziri kuMaodzanyemba eMutsazanisi dzinowana chiedza kwemaAwa anodarika 12; nzvimbo dzose dziri kuChamhembe kweMutsazanisi dzinowana chiedza chiri kwemahawa ari pasi pe 12. Hafu yekuMaodzanyemba inenge iri mumwaka weZhizha, hafu yekuChamhembe inenge iri mumwaka wechando.


  • Pamazuva December 20-21 Earth inenge iri panzvimbo muboterekwa yokuti South pole inenge yakanongedza kuzuva yakatsveyamira kuzuva ne 23.5o. Denderedzwa rechiedza rinenge riri panzvimbo yokuti South pole haipinde murima zvokuti South pole inowana 24 maawa echiedza. Denderedzwa reChiedza rinenge rakaita muganhu palatitude 66.5oS panova ndipo panotangira Antarctic Circle. Panguva imwechete, North pole inenge yakanongedza kwakapesana nezuva, denderedzwa rechiedza rinenge riri panzvimbo yokuti North pole inoramba iri murima. Nouth pole inowana 24 maawa erima.

Pamazuva aya, nzvimbo dzose dziri kuChamhembe kweMutsazanisi dzinowana chiedza kwemahawa anodarika 12; nzvimbo dzose dziri kuMaodzanyemba kweMutsazanisi dzinowana chiedza chiri kwemahawa ari pasi pe 12. Hafu yekuChamhembe inenge iri mumwaka weZhizha, hafu yekuMaodzanyemba inenge iri mumwaka wechando.


Tsazahusiku Equinox

Mazuva eTsazahusiku anoitika March 20-21 neSeptember 20-21. Pamazuva aya Denderedzwa reChiedza rinocheka North pole neSouth pole - mativi ose eAkiso anenge ari hhambwe dzakafanana kubva kuzuva - hapana divi rinenge riri pedyo nezuva kudarika rimwe. Zvakare hapana divi reAkiso rinenge rakanongedza kune zuva. Pamazuva aya nzvimbo dzose dziri panyika dzinowana husiku hwakaenzana, hwakareba 12 maawa - saka mazuva aya achinzi Tsazahusiku- equinox.

Kubva pana March 20-21, nguva yechiedza inoenda ichireba kuhafu yekuMaodzanyemba - kutanga kwenguva yeChirimo (spring) kunzvimbo dziri kuMaodzanyemba kweMutsazanisi. Kunzvimbo dziri kuChamhembe, nguva yechiedza inenge ichiderera, kutanga kwenguva yeMatsutso (autumn) kunzvimbo idzi.

Kubva pana Sep 20-21, nguva yechiedza inoenda ichiderera kuhafu yekuMaodzanyemba - iyi inguva yemwaka we[[Matsutso] (autumn) kunzvimbo dziri ku[[Maodzanyemba kweMutsazanisi. Kunzvimbo dziri kuChamhembe, nguva yechiedza inenge ichireba, nguva yemwaka weChirimo kunzvimbo idzi.


Latitude neLongitude muChiShona[chinja | edit source]

  • Muyeramwaka. Taona kuti mwaka yepanyika inosiyana zvichienderana nekusiyana kwelatitude; nokudaro pfungwa iri kuti tsambamba idzi dzidanwe kunzi Muyeramwaka mwaka muChiShona. Mwaka inenge iri kulatitude dzekuMaodzanyemba inopesana nemwaka yelatitude dzekuChamhembe. Nzvimbo dziri mulatitude dzemaTropics munova mune nyika yeZimbabwe, mwaka haiverengwe kusvika pamwaka mina. Izvi zvinokonzerwa nechiitiko chokunge zuva richiwanikwa nemurazvo une simba panguva zhinji dzegore.

Nzvimbo dziri kunze kwelatitude yeTropics dzinoverenga mwaka mina inoonekwa zvakati tsvikiti. Mwaka iyi ndiyo chando; chirimo, zhizha, matsutso inova winter, autumn, summer ne spring kuEnglish.

  • Muyeranhambo. Nguva yezuva inosiyana zvichienderana nelongitude, saka zvakafanira kuti longitude inzi Muyeranhambo. Nzvimbo dzakasiyana dzine nguva dzakasiyana zvichienderana nelongitude yenzvimbo yacho. Kune mipanda yenguva (time-zones) yakarongeka ichitevedza rudzivo Mabvazuva-Madokero yakatarwa pamitemo yenguva Pasirose. Nguva idzi hadzizoteveri longitude kuti gedye-gedye nokuda kwekusiyana kwemitemo yenyika dzePasirose panhau yeMipanda yenguva.

Tamboona kuti longitude inoverengwa iri 0-180oE tichienda kuMabvazuva uye 0-180oW tichienda kuMadokero. Zvinoreva kuti gonyo relongitude rinohwerengedzwa kusvika pa360o. Taona zvakare kuti nyika inoziririka kutenderera kamwe pamahawa 24h - mahawa 24h anoenderana ne 360o. Panofambwa 15o yoga-yoga nguva inochinja nehawa imwe (1h).

Nyika yeZimbabwe iri murumana rwemuyeranhambo (longitude) +30oE. Pose panochinja muyeranhamo ne 15o, nguva inochinja neawa rimwe (1h). Nokudaro Zimbabwe inopiwa nguva yakawedzerwa 2h (maawa 2) zvichienzaniswa nenguva iri paPrime Meridian. Somuenzaniso kana nguva iri paPrime Meridian iri pa 06:00hrs, nguva yeZimbabwe inenge iri pa 08:00hrs. Nguva iri paPrime Meridian inonzi Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Nokumwe kutaura nguva yeZimbabwe inodanwa ichinzi GMT + 2hrs.

  • Tariro ndeyekuti mifananidzo ivepo pachidzidzo chino kubatsira kunzwisisa zviri kutsanangurwa.