Niyoni

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Mabhii aNe anopenya nekuti anoratidzwa nechinhu chinozadza Niyoni
Zita re nhangande: Niyoni (neon)
Chiratidzo: Ne
Numeri ye Hatomu: 10
Series column gasi rakakosha
Huremu hwe hatomu: 20.1797
Dhenziti: 0.9002 g / L
Hukukutu ( Mohs ) {{{hukukutu}}}
Poyindi ye kufanza: 24.56 K (-248.59 ° C )
Rheti ye kufanza: 27.07 K (-246.08 ° C)
Pasendi ye goko re rinopasi: 5 · 10 -7  %
Chirambo: gasi

Niyoni ( ku Chingezi: neon) kana nyowani inhangande ye mushonga ine chiratidzo Ne, uye numeri ye hatomu 10. Niyoni chikudzwa chegasi (noble gas). Igasi isina ruvara, isina hwema, igasi riri ineti, rine hatomu rimwe (monatomic), pasi pe mastandadhi kondisheni, ine mbiri-nhatu denziti we mweya. Yakawanikwa (pamwe chete ne Kuriputoni uye Shenoni) muna 1898 se imwe pakati petatu - nhange dziri ineti uye dzakakosha dzinosara mumweya wakaoma, mushure mekubviswa kwe Nito, Oksijeni, Arukoni uye Kabhoni dhayoksaidhi. Niyoni yaive ye chimbiri pakati pe magasi akakosha akawanikwa uye yakakaika kuonekwa senhangande tsva nekuda kwe buritswo yerujeko tsvuku pa nangazira. Zita rekuti niyoni rakabva kushoko re Chigiriki rekuti νέον (neuter) kubva ku shoko rekuti νέος (neos), zvichireva kuti 'itsva'. Niyoni mushonga uri ineti, uye hapana makumbanidzwa we niyoni asina kuchajwa anozivikanwa. Makumbanidzwa e niyoni anozivikanwa izvozvi anosanganisa mamorekuru ari ayoniki, mamorekuru akabatanidzwa ne mafosi uye makwatireti (clathrates) e vhandewaarusi (van der Waals).[1]

Munguva ye tangausomo (nucleogenesis) ye kosimosi yenhangande, huwandu hukuru hwe niyoni anowakwa kubva kunyenguko ye Arufa-tapa (alpha capture) pamundandaritsa munyeredzi. Kunyangwe niyoni ichiwanzo kwanisa kuwanikwa mudenganyika uye muMutandiro we Mushana (ndeye chishanu pakuwanikwa mukosimiki ichiteera Sikamanzi (kana Haidhirojeni), Ran'a (kana Chimuzuva; helium), Oksijeni, Kabhoni), yakakosha pa Rinopasi. Yakagadzirwa ichisanganisa 18.2 ppm mumhu we mweya (iyi imwechete nerupande rwemorekuru kaka moru) uye ine rupande rudiki rwe goko rwe Rinopasi. Chikonzero chekushayika kweniyoni paRinopasi ne muzvindeya zviri mu terestiyari ndechekuti niyoni iri voretairu kwazvo uye hayiwumbe makumbanidzwa anoigadza pamagodo. Nekuda kwe izvi, yakapunyuka kubva ku zvindeyasimuri (planetesimals) pasi pekugota Zuva rakange rabva kuveswa muMutandiro we Mushana mukutanga. Kunyangwe kunze kwe gute-remweya re Vhenekeratsvimborume rakabviswa niyoni, asi nekuda kwechimwe chikonzero.[2]

Niyoni inopa rujeko rwe tsvuku-ranjisi painoshandiswa se vhoruteji-yakaderera muzvimwenje zvinopenya, matubhu uye zviratidzwa zvekuadhivhetaiza e vhoruteji-yakakwira. Mutsetse we buritswo tsvuku we niyoni unokonzeresa wo chiedza chitsvuku che ran'a-niyoni (helium) raseri (lasers). Niyoni inoshandiswa mu chubhu ye pwasima (plasma) uye chiiswa (applicant) ye mafiriji asi inoshandisirwa zvimwe wo. Mamwe mashandisirwo ayo pakutengeswa inotorwa ne rupande rwe dhistiri (fractional distillation) ye mutivi we mweya. Sezvo, nekuda kwekuti mweya ndiwo wega mbambiro (source), inodhura zvakanyanya kupfuura ran'a.

Nhoroondo[chinja | edit source]

chiedza che niyoni

Niyoni yakawanikwa muna 1898 ne Mungezi anoita zvemushonga, ainzi Sinyoro William Ramsay (1852-1916) ne Morris Travers (1872-1961) muRandani. Niyoni yakawanikwa paka tonhondzwa nyesvuro (sample) ye mweya na Ramsay kusvika yaita mutivi, akabva agotesa (warmed) mutivi ne kutapa (capture) gasi ichivira (kana kufanza). Magasi nito, oksijeni ne arukoni akazivikwa, asi magasi anosara akapatsanurwa muraya reuchokocha[3] (abundance), musvondo re period ye nhanhatu rakatanga mukupera kwa Chivabvu 1998. Yakave yekutanga kuzivikanwa se kuriputoni. Kuteera, mushure me kubviskwa kwe kuriputoni, gasi yaive ne chiedza chitsvukutsvuku pasi pe sinachaji (discharge) ye fundaunangazire (spectroscopic). Gasi iyi, yakazivikwa muna Chikumi, ikanzi niyoni, kubva ku anarogu (analogue) ye Chigiriki ye shoko re Chiratini novum (itsva) raka yambirwa (suggested) na mwanakomana wa Ramsay. Hunyire hwe ruvara rwe tsvuku-ranjisi yakajeka kwazvo rwaibuditswa ne chigasi niyoni paifara magetsi ayo kwaka kasika kunembwa Travers akanyora kuti: "kukovodza[4] kwe chiedza chisvuki kubva muchubhu kwaitaura nyayo yayo uye kwaive kuoneka kunofanhira kuramba kuchifungwa ne kusazo kangan'wa".

Gasi ye chimbiri yaka rhipotwa pamwechete ne niyoni, yaive ne dhenziti yakafanana neye arukoni asi iine nangazire yakasiyana - Ramsay na Travers vakaiti Metarukoni (metargon). Asi, pakaongororwa fundaunangazire kwazvo pakaratidzwa kuti yaive hayo arukoni yaka svibiswa (contaminated) ne kabhoni monoksaidhi. Pekupedzisira, chikwata chimwe icho icho chaka vhumbura (discovered) shenoni ne ndandaridza imwe chete muna Gunyana 1898.

Enzanhara[chinja | edit source]

Tarisai futi: Enzanhara ye Niyoni - chikamu chino chinoda kuwedzerwa.

Niyoni igasi riri ineti rechimbiri rakajeka. Niyoni ine maenzanhara matatu ane hudzidzinindi: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%).

Mamwe mapeji ekutarisa[chinja | edit source]

Mazwi ashandiswa[chinja | edit source]

Tarisai futi peji re Zvivakamberi uye Zvivakashure

Zvivakashure[chinja | edit source]

Chivakashure kana 'suffix'

  • -gen (senge shoko rekuti genesis) zvichireva kuti: beginning, starting, forming, producing
    • Mu Chishona rinenge richinzi - kuumba, kutanga, kueza, kubudisa, kunyutsa, kubaritsa, ne chii chii.
      • Saka chivakashure -gen ndi umba- kana eza- (asi chinenge chiri chivakamberi mu Chishona)
  • -scope (senge shoko rekuti telescope (ringakure/dongorahweva)) zvichireva kuti: to look, to observe,
    • Mu Chishona rinenge richinzi - kutarisa, kuringa, kuongorora
      • Saka chivakashure -scope muChishona ndi -ringa kana -ongora
  • -scopy (senge shoko rekuti spectroscopy) zvichireva kuti: study, examanine
    • raka fanana na scope - asi mu Chishona -scopy ndi funda, dzidza, dhoma
      • saka -scopy ndi funda-

Zvivakamberi[chinja | edit source]

Chivakamberi kana 'prefix'

  • oxy- (senge mashoko ekuti oxygen kana dioxide) zvichireva kuti: sharp, acute, keem pointed, acid
  • tele- (senge mashoko rekuti telescope kana television) zvichireva kuti:
  • spectro- (senge spectrum (nangazire)) nangazira
    • Mu Chishona spectro- ndi -unangazire
  • dis- (senge discharge kana dismiss) zvichireva kuti: apart, away, asunder, separate
    • Mu Chishona ndi pasina, chisipo,
      • saka dis- ndi sina- kana chisina-
  • di- (senge dioxide) zvichireva kuti: two, double
    • saka di- anenge bi-, saka di ndi mbiri, piri, viri

Zvimwe zvekurangarira[chinja | edit source]

  • kr na kl ndi kw- kana ku- muchishona
  • x ndi sh kana s-
  • pr na pl ndi pw-

Mabviro eruzivo[chinja | edit source]

  1. en:wiki niyoni
  2. Wilson, Hugh F.; Militzer, Burkhard (March 2010), "Sequestration of Noble Gases in Giant Planet Interiors", Physical Review Letters, 104 (12): 121101, arXiv:1003.5940, Bibcode:2010PhRvL.104l1101W, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.121101, PMID 20366523, S2CID 9850759, 121101.
  3. https://vashona.com/en/dictionary/en/abundance
  4. blaze
  5. Vashona, 10 Gumiguru 2019, "exapnd" Yakatariswa: 30/9/2021