Chiratini

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Dombo rakanyorwa muChiratini
Nyika dzinoshandisa Mabhii eRatini
Mabhii eChiratini

Chiratini (Chirungu: Latin; Chiratini: latīnum, kana lingua latīna) kana Chilatin mutauro wekare uri weBazi reItari yeMitauro yeIndo-Yuropu. Chiratini chakatanga kutaurwa munzvimbo dzakatenderedza Roma, inozivikanwa seRatiyamu (Latium).[1] Kuburikidza nesimba reRipabhuriki yeRoma, wakave mutauro wakakurumbira muItari, uyezve muHumambo hweRoma hwekumadokero, usati waguma wave mutauro wakafa. Chiratini yakapa mashoko mazhinji kuChirungu. Kunyanya, Chiratini (uye Chigiriki cheChinyakare) midzi inoshandiswa mune dudziro yeChirungu dzidziso yeTendero(Chishona; theology), sainzi, mushonga, uye mutemo.

Nhoroondo[chinja | edit source]

Chinyorwa chikuru: Nhoroondo yeChiratini

Nzvimbo yemitauro yePakati peItari (Central Italy) pakutanga kwekuwedzera kweRoma zvikamu zvinoverengeka zvezvakaitika zvemutauro zvakazivikanwa, chimwe nechimwe chakasiyana nemisiyano isinganzwisisike mumashoko, mashandisirwo, chiperengo, morphology, uye syntax. Iko hakuna kwakaomarara uye nekukurumidza mitemo yekumisikidza; nyanzvi dzakasiyana dzinosimbisa akasiyana maficha. Nekuda kweizvozvo, rondedzero ine akasiyana, pamwe nemamwe mazita.

Pamusoro pezvikamu zvezvakaitika kare, Ratini yeChiparidziro (Ecclesiastical Latin) inoreva zvitaera zvinoshandiswa nevanyori veChechi yeMaroma kubva Late Antiquity zvichienda mberi, pamwe nevevadzidzi vePurotesitendi.

Mushure mekunge Hutongi hweMadokero hweRoma hwawa muna 476 uye humambo hweJemeni hwakatora nzvimbo, vanhu veChijemeni vakatora Chiratini semutauro unokodzera kushandiswa zviri pamutemo uye nekumwe kushandiswa.[2]

Mhando dzeRatini

  • Ratini Yekare (Old Latin)
  • Classical Latin
  • Vulgar Latin
  • Medieval Latin
  • Renaissance Latin
  • Ratini Itsva (New Latin)
  • Contemporary Latin

Manhamba[chinja | edit source]

Munguva dzekare, nhamba muChiratini dzainyorwa chete nemavara. Nhasi, nhamba dzinogona kunyorwa neNhamba dzeChiarabhu pamwe nemanhamba echiRoma. Iwo manhamba 1, 2 na3 uye ese mazana akazara kubva pa200 kusvika 900 anodzikiswa semazita uye zvipikisheni, aine misiyano.

Manhamba eChiratini
Chiratini Chiratini Chishona
ūnus, ūna, ūnum (vanhurume, vanhukadzi, vese) I Poshi
duo, duae, duo (vr.,vk, v.) II Piri
trēs, tria (vr./vk., v.) III Tatu
quattuor IIII kana V Ina
quīnque V Shanu
sex VI Nhanhatu
septem VII Nomwe
octō VIII Sere
novem VIIII kana IX Pfumbamwe
decem X Gumi
quīnquāgintā L Makumi Mashanu
centum C Zana
quīngentī, quīngentae, quīngenta (vr., vk., v.) D Mazana mashanu
mīlle M Churu

Iwo manhamba kubva ku4 kuenda ku100 haachinje magumo avo. Sezvazviri muzvizvarwa zvemazuva ano senge Chisipanyeri, hunhu hwekutumidza nhamba uri wega ndewechirume, kuitira kuti "1, 2, 3" iverengerwe se-ūnus, duo, trēs.

Mabviro eruzivo[chinja | edit source]

  1. Sandys, John Edwin (1910). A companion to Latin studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 811–812.
  2. "History of Europe - Barbarian migrations and invasions". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 February 2021.