Azote

From Wikipedia
(Redirected from Nitrogen)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Azote
chiedza che Azote
Mahalotropu: tarisai chikamu chemahalotropu

e Azote

Ratidziko: gasi isina ruvara, mutuvi, godo
Uremu we

hatomu Ar°(N):

  • [14.00643, 14.00728]
  • 14.007±0.001 (abridged)
Azote muTafura ye Nhangande
Numeri ye

hatomu (Z)

7
Boka: boku 15 (pnictogens)
Piriyodhi: piriyodhi 2
Bhuroku: bhuroku-p
Konfigari ye

mhodzgetsi:

[He] 2s2 2p3
mhodzigetsi pa

goko:

2, 5
Mutumbi we Miriki
Fezi pa STP: gas
Poyindi yekunyauka: (N2) 63.23 K ​

(−209.86 °C, ​−345.75 °F)

Poyindi ye kufanza: (N2) 77.355 K ​

(−195.795 °C, ​−320.431 °F)

Dhensiti (pa STP) 1.2506 g/L at 0 °C, 1013 mbar
Se mutuvi (at b.p.) 0.808 g/cm3
Poyindi itatu: 63.151 K, ​12.52 kPa
Poyindi iri critical: 126.21 K, 3.39 MPa
Fiyuzheni yekudziya: (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Kudziya kwekupfunga:

(vaporisation)

(N2) 5.57 kJ/mol
Kapasiti ye kudzaya

kuri-molar:

(N2) 29.124 J/(mol·K)
Puresha ye mupfunga:
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Miriki ye Hatomu
Miriro ye

Okusidhesheni:

−3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5

(i-oxide ine nyong'o yakasimba)

Uhwaradadahwegetsi:

(Electronegativity)

Pauling scale: 3.04
Ito (eneji) yekunonda:
  • 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Rhedhiyasi ye

Gombedzwana:

71±1 pm
Rhedhiyasi ye

Vhandewaarusi:

155 pm
Mitsara unangazire we Azote

(Spectral lines e azote)

Dzimwe Miriki
Chiitiko chiumurusikwa: primordial
Strakcha ye kistaro: hexagonal
Spidhi ye ruzha: 353 m/s (gas, at 27 °C)
Thermal conductivity: 25.83×10−3 W/(m⋅K)
Raya re magineti: huguramagineti
Numeri ya CAS: 17778-88-0

7727-37-9 (N2)

Nhoroondo
Kuvhumburwa: Daniel Rutherford (1772)
Yakatumidzwa na: Jean-Antoine Chaptal (1790)
Enzanhara huru ye Azote
Enzanhara Uzhinji Chidimbu-Upenyu (t1/2) Modhi ye

bvurunuro

Prodhakti
13N syn 9.965 min ε 13C
14N 99.6% stable
15N 0.4% stable

Azote[1][2] (kuChingezi: nitrogen, Chishongrish: nitrojeni) kana nito, ndiyo nhangande yechemishonga ine chiratidzo N uye numeri ye hatomu 7. Azote i-sinasimbi uye ndiyo simbi yakareruka kwazvo muboka 15 re rupotera re nhangande, inowanzonzi masikanito (pnictogens). Ndiro nhangande rinonyanyo wanikwa muVuzvose (yunivhesi), rinofungidzirwa kuvapachinomwe pakuwanda muGwararezhou ne Mutandiro we Mushana. Pahujoto ne puresha, pane mahatomu maviri aro anobatana kuumba N2, idhihatomu gasi isinaruvara uye isinahwema. N2 inoumba 78% yehuwandu ye guteromweya ye Rinopasi, ndiyo nhangane isina kukombainwa (uncombined). Azote inowanikwa muzvisikwa zvese, kunyanya munyong'o-amino (uye nekudaro mapuroteni), mune nyong'o inyukliya (DNA neRNA) uye mune simba rekufambisa molecule adenosine triphosphate. Mwiri wemunhu une 3% azote nekuwanda, ye china yakanyanya kuwanda mumwiri mushure meokusijeni, kabhoni, uye sikamanzi (hidrojeni). Iyo cycle ye azote inotsanangura kufamba kwechinhu kubva kumhepo, kupinda mugutebenyu (bhiosfiya) uye makompaundi ari hoganiki, zvino kudzokera muguteromweya.

Mishonga mizhinji yakakosha muhushangazhi, senge ammonia, nyong'o ye nitiri, azoteri irihoganiki (propellants uye zviputitswa), uye masyanidhi (cyanides), ane azote. Bhondi-tatu rakanyanya kusimba munhangande azote (N≡N), bhondi riripachinzvimbo chechipiri pakusimba muchero madhihatomu morekuri mushure me Kabhoni Monokusaidhi (CO), inotonga chemishonga che azoteri. Izvi zvinokonzeresa kuomerwa kwezvose zvipenyu uye indasitiri mukushandura N2 kuita makomisheni anobatsira, asi panguva imwecheteyo zvinoreva kuti kupisa, kuputika, kana kuora nitrogen makomisheni kuita gasi renitrogen rinoburitsa huwandu hukuru hwesimba rinowanzo batsira. Synthetically inogadzirwa ammonia uye azoteri (nitrate) ndiwo akakosha mafetereza emaindasitiri, uye fetireza nitrate ndiwo akanyanya kusvibisa mu eutrophication yemvura masisitimu.

Yakatanga kuwanikwa uye yakaparadzaniswa nachiremba wokuSkotilendi (Vuskoti) Daniel Rutherford muna 1772. Kunyange zvazvo Carl Wilhelm Scheele na Henry Cavendish vakanga vazviita vakazvimirira panenge panguva imwe cheteyo, Rutherford anowanzopiwa mbiri nemhaka yokuti basa rake rakatanga kubudiswa. Zita rekuti nitrogène rakataurwa nemuongorori wemakemikari wekuFuranzi Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal muna 1790 pakaonekwa kuti azote yaive munyong'o ye nitiri ne azoteri. Antoine Lavoisier akakurudzira panzvimbo pezita rokuti nitrogen, kubva muChigiriki chekare: ἀζωτικός "hapana hupenyu", sezvo iri gasi rinopisa; Iri zita rinoshandiswa mumitauro yakati wandei, kusanganisira Chifurenji, Chiitari, Chirhashiya, Chiromania, Chiputukezi ne Chituruki, uye rinowanikwa mumazita eChingezi emamwe macompound e azote akadai se hidhirazi, maazidha (azides) uye makompaundi e azo.

Kunze kwekushandiswa kwayo mumafetiraiza uye zvitoro zvine simba, azoter inhengo yezvakagadzirwa zviri hoganiki zvakasiyana-siyana seKevlar inoshandiswa mumucheka wepamusoro-simba uye cyanoacrylate inoshandiswa mu superglue. Azote inhengo yekirasi yese yemishonga yemishonga, kusanganisira mishonga inorwisa mabhakitiriya. Mishonga mizhinji inotevedzera kana maprodrugs echisikigo nitrogen-ine masaini mamorekuru: semuenzaniso, iyo organic nitrates nitroglycerin uye nitroprusside inodzora BP nekuisa munitriki oksaidhi. Mazhinji zvinodhaka ane nitrogen, akadai seakasikwa caffeine uye morphine kana synthetic amphetamines, anoita pama receptors emhuka neurotransmitters.

Zita[chinja | edit source]

Unenashoko (etimoloji)[chinja | edit source]

Zita iri rinowanikwa ku Chistandadhi Shona, hariko kuChishona chakadzama saka rinogona kunge richibva kuChiputukezi kunyangwe zvisina kugwarwa paDuramazwi reVashona. MuChiputukezi iyo nitrojeni inonzi azoto kana azote.

Zita rokuti sikanito ririkubva pachirevo cheChingezi, nitrogen kana rikapatsanurwa shoko rokuti nitro ndiro "nito" muChishona uye chivakamberi -gen zvinoreva kuti "sika; umba; gadzirwa ne-". Sika shoko rokuti nitrogen ndiro sikanito kana umbanito.

Chibhantu[chinja | edit source]

Mazita renhangande zhinji haawanikwi kumitauro yakawanda yeChibantu. Chiswahiri pachinoshaya mazwi rinotora kubva kuChiarabhu nokuti kubva kudhara wakambo tora mazwi kubva kumutaura wacho. Mitauro zhinji yekuMabvazuva kwe Afurika inotodza Chiswahiri saka inowanzo tora wo mazita ezvinhu kubva kuChiswahiri nokuti chinotaurwa vanhu hobho.

Mazwi ashandiswa[chinja | edit source]

  • kistaro - kureva crystal, kana zita reChishona richizivikwa ngariiswe.
  • kupfunga - vaporisation
  • murasha - kureva Kabhoni zvichienderera nechirevo chezita kumutauro warakabva.
  • Sinasimbi (non-metal)
  • Sinausimbi (non-metallic)
  • Huguramagineti (diamagnetic) Guramagineti (diamagnet) Gura (dia-)
  • Miriki (property) kubva pashoko reChiswahiri, kana reChishona rikazivikwa ngariiswe pamusoro peiri.
  • Mutumbi (physical)
  • Pwasoni (Poisson)
  • murusikwa (natural/naturally) - kureva sozvazvakasikwa, umurusikwa (in it's created state/natural)

Mabviro eruzivo[chinja | edit source]

  1. Vashona, 2015, "Nitrogen" Duramazwi re Vashona. Yakatariswa: 5 Chivabvu 2022
  2. "Duramazwi e Chishona"
  3. sw:wiki
  4. ln:wiki
  5. 5.0 5.1 http://www.dac.gov.za/sites/default/files/terminology/natural-sciences-and-technology-for-grade-4-to-6%20Ven.pdf Peji 113. Yakatariswa: 5 Chivabvu 2022