Gwararezhou

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Gwararezhou, Gwara Rezhou (kureva path of the elephant; Milky Way Galaxy) kana Gwararenzou, ighalaksi rinosanganisa Mtandira we Mushana wedu, zita rayo paChivanhu rakatumidzwa kutodza nzira inofambwa ne nzou, nokuda kwe kuungana kwenyeredzi dzichipoterera. Gwararezhou rinooneka se gungano re chiedza mudenga rousiku rinoumbwa nokuda kwenyeredzi dzisingakwanise kuongororwa ne ziso risina kupfeka.

Neno rokuti Milky Way ichishandurudzwa che Chiratini via lactea, kubva kuChigiriki γαλακτικός κύκλος (galaktikos kýklos) kureva kuti "denderedzwa re umukaka". Kubva ku Rinopasi, Gwararezhou rinooneka senge bhendi nekuda kwe chiwumbiko charo cherudhiski pakuoonekwa kubva kumukati. Galileo Galilei akatanga kuresolva bhendi re chiedza munyeredzi dzimwe ne dzimwe ne ringakura muna 1610. Kusvika mukutanga kwe ma1920, vapanganyeredzi vaifunga kuti Gwararezhou ndiro raive ne nyeredzi dzose dziri mu Vuungazvose. Mukuteera Great Debate re 1920 pakati pe vapanganyeredzi Harlow Shapley na Heber Curtis,zvicherechedzo zva Edwin Hubble zvakarakidza Gwararezhou ighalaksi ribodzi pakati pe mamwe.

Gwararezhou i- barred spiral galaxy rine dhiyamita riisofoti (isophotal) rinoestimetwa kuva D25 ye 26.8 ± 1.1 kiloparsecs (87,400 ± 3,590 makore-echiedza),[1] asi pangori ne 1,000 makore echiedza bedzi kumaoko e-spiral (ku-bulge kune akatiwandei). Masimulesheni amazuvano anosajesta kuti ruwa re sebhe dzvipu, rine nyeredzi dzinooneka, rinogona kuenderera kusvika dhiyamita inogona kuva 2 miriyoni makore-echiedza (613 kpc). Gwararezhou ine emaghalaksi e setirayiti akawanda uye chikamu che Local Group ye maghalaksi, anoumba chikamu che Gwambahuru re Virigo, irowo ikomponenti re Gwambahuru re Laniakea.

Inofungidzirwa kuti ine 100-400 mabhiriyoni enyeredzi  uye zvishoma nhamba iyoyo ye zvindeya. Mutandira we Mushana iri panzvimbo inosvika 27,000 chiedza-makore (8.3 kpc) kubva kuGalactic Center ,  pamucheto wemukati weOrion Arm , imwe yemhepo yakadzika-yakaita gasi. neguruva. Nyeredzi dziri mukati-kati memakore 10 000 echiedza-makore dzinoumba bundu uye mbariro imwe kana kupfuura inopenya kubva mubundu. Iyo Upakati we Rughalaksi (kureva galactic center) inzvimbo yeredhiyo yakasimba inozivikanwa seSagittarius A* , gomba dema rakakura kwazvo re4.100 (± 0.034) mamirioni ezuva..  Nyeredzi nemagasi pazvinhambwe zvakakura kubva paGalactic Center orbit pamakiromita angangoita 220 pasekondi. Kumhanya kunogara kuchitenderera kunoratidzika kunge kunopesana nemitemo yeKeplerian dynamics uye kunoratidza kuti yakawanda (inenge 90%)  yehuremu hweMilky Way haioneki neteresikopu, haibudisi kana kutora mwaranzi yemagetsi . Uhu huremu hwekufungidzira hwakadaidzwa kunzi " dark matter ".  Nguva yekutenderera ingangoita 212 miriyoni emakore panzvimbo yeZuva.

Iyo Milky Way yese iri kufamba pamwero we 600 km pasekondi maererano ne extragalactic mafuremu ereferensi. Nyeredzi dzekaresa muGwara Renzou dzinenge dzakura seChadenga pachacho uye nokudaro zvichida dzakaumbwa nguva pfupi pashure peNguva yeRima yeBig Bang .

Iyo Milky Way yese iri kufamba pamwero we 600 km pasekondi maererano ne extragalactic mafuremu ereferensi. Nyeredzi dzekaresa muGwara Renzou dzinenge dzakura seChadenga pachacho uye nokudaro zvichida dzakaumbwa nguva pfupi pashure peNguva yeRima yeBig Bang .

Ruambaruvambo ne Ruambanhema[chinja | edit source]

Mudetembo guru reBhabhironi rinonzi Enūma Eliš , Gwara Renzou rinogadzirwa kubva kumuswe wakachekwa weshato rekare remvura yemunyu rinonzi Tiamat , rakaiswa mudenga naMarduk , mwari wenyika ye Bhabhironi , pashure pokunge amuuraya.  Nyaya iyi yaimbofungidzirwa kuti yakavakirwa pashanduro yekare yechiSumerian umo Tiamat arikuuraiwa naEnlil wekuNippur , [ 40  asi iko zvino yava kufungidzirwa kuti yakangogadzirwa nevanoparadzira mashoko eBabironi. vavariro yokuratidza Marduk somukuru kuvamwari veSumer.

Mungano dzechiGiriki , Zeus anoisa mwanakomana wake akaberekwa nomukadzi anofa, mucheche Heracles , pazamu raHera paanenge akarara kuitira kuti mwana anwe mukaka wake waMwari uye nokudaro ave asingafi. Hera anomuka achiyamwisa uye anobva aziva kuti ari kuyamwisa mwana asingazivikanwe: anosundidzira mwana kure, mamwe emukaka wake anoteuka, uye inoburitsa bhendi rechiedza rinozivikanwa seMilky Way. Mune imwe nyaya yechiGiriki, Heracles akasiyiwa anopiwa naAthena kuna Hera kuti adye, asi simba raHeracles rinoita kuti Athena amubvise kubva pachifuva chake mukurwadziwa.

Llys Dôn (chaizvoizvo "Dare reDôn ") izita rechinyakare rechiWales reboka renyeredzi Cassiopeia . Vanenge vatatu vevana vaDôn vanewo masangano ezvemuchadenga: Caer Gwydion ("Nhare ye Gwydion ") izita rechinyakare rechiWelsh re Gwararezhou  uye Caer Arianrhod ("Nhare ye Arianrhod ") iri iyo nyeredzi dze Corona Borealis .

Mutsika dzekumadokero, zita rekuti "Milky Way" rinotorwa kubva pakuonekwa kwaro se "mukaka" bhendi rinopenya risina kugadziriswa rinopenya mudenga rehusiku. Izwi iri ishanduro yeClassic Latin via lactea , richibva muchiGiriki chechiGiriki γαλαξίας , chipfupi che γαλαξίας κύκλος ( galaxías kýklos ), zvichireva kuti "denderedzwa remukaka". ChiGiriki chekare γαλαξίας ( galaxias ) - kubva pamudzi γαλακτ -, γάλα ("mukaka") + -ίας (kuumba zvipauro) - ndiwowo mudzi we "galaxy", zita redu, uye gare gare zvose zvakadaro, kuunganidzwa kwenyeredzi.

Iyo Gwararezhou, kana "mukaka denderedzwa", yaingova imwe ye11 "matenderedzwa" maGiriki akaonekwa mudenga, mamwe ari zodiac , meridian , horizon , equator , nzvimbo dzinopisa dzeCancer neCapricorn , Akitiki ne Andakitika denderedzwa. , uye madenderedzwa maviri emakora achipfuura nepamatanda ose ari maviri.

Magadzirirwo[chinja | edit source]

Chinyorwa chikuru: Kuumbwa kwe Ghalaksi uye shanduko

Nhoroondo[chinja | edit source]

Iyo Gwararezhou yakatanga seimwe kana akati wandei madiki akawandisa mukugovewa kukuru muUniverse nguva pfupi mushure meBig Bang makore 13.61 bhiriyoni apfuura.  Kumwe kwekuwandisa uku kwaive mhodzi dzemasumbu epasi pakaumbwa nyeredzi dzekare dzakasara mune yava kunzi Gwararezhou. Inoda kusvika hafu yenyaya muGwara Renzou ingave yakabva kune mamwe mapoka enyeredzi ari kure.  Zvisineyi, nyeredzi nemasumbu aya zvino ave kuumba halo yenyeredzi ye Gwararezhou. Mukati memabhiriyoni mashoma emakore ekuberekwa kwenyeredzi dzokutanga, huremu hweGwara Renzou hwakanga hwakakura zvakakwana zvokuti hwaitenderera nokukasika. Nekuda kwekuchengetedza angular kukurumidza, izvi zvakaita kuti gaseous interstellar medium idonhe kubva paita spheroidal shape kuenda kudisiki. Naizvozvo, zvizvarwa zvakatevera zvenyeredzi zvakaumbwa muiyi spiral disk. Nyeredzi diki zhinji, kusanganisira Zuva, dzinoonekwa dziri mudhisiki.

Kubva pakatanga nyeredzi dzekutanga kuumbwa, Gwararezhou rakakura kuburikidza nekubatana kwe Gwararezhou (kunyanya kutanga kwekukura kweMilky Way) uye kuwedzera kwegasi kubva kuGalactic halo. Gwararezhou, oarizvino iri kuunganidza zvinhu kubva kumapoka madiki akati wandei, kusanganisira maviri emakuru esatellite enyeredzi, Iwo Makuru uye Diki Magellanic Makore, kuburikidza neMagellan Stream . Kuwedzera kwegasi kwakananga kunoonekwa mumakore akakwirira -velocity seSmith Cloud .  Mienzaniso yeCosmological inoratidza kuti, makore bhiriyoni gumi nerimwe apfuura, yakabatana negwara renzou guru rinenge rakanyorwa kutiKraken . Zvisineyi, zvimiro zveMilky Way senge stellar mass, angular momentum , uye metallicity munzvimbo dzayo dzekunze dzinoratidza kuti haina kusangana nemakwara enzou makuru mumakore bhiriyoni gumi apfuura. Uku kushaikwa kwekubatana kukuru kwemisi ichangobva kupfuura iyi hakusi kwechienzi pakati pemakwara enzou akafanana; muvakidzani wayo Andromeda Galaxy inoita seine nhoroondo yakajairika yakaumbwa nekubatana kwazvino nemapoka enyeredzi akakura.

Zvinoenderana nezvidzidzo zvenguva pfupi yapfuura, iyo Gwararezhou pamwe ne Ghalaksi ra Andromeda zviri mune iyo galaxy color-magnitude diagraph inozivikanwa se "mupanda uzerere valley", dunhu rinogarwa nemapoka enyeredzi ari kuchinja kubva ku "gore riungu" (maghalaksi ari kushingaira kuumba nyeredzi itsva) kune "kutevedzana kwakatsvuka" (maghalaksi asina kuumbwa kwenyeredzi). Chiitiko chekugadzira nyeredzi mumakwara enyeredzi mumipata chiri kuderera sezvo ari kupera gasi rinogadzira nyeredzi mukati mepakati penyeredzi. Mumakwara enzou akafananidzwa ane zvimiro zvakafanana, kuumbwa kwenyeredzi kunenge kwakadzimwa mukati memakore anosvika mabhiriyoni mashanu kubva zvino, zvichitoverengera zvinotarisirwa, zvenguva pfupi kuwedzera kwehuwandu hwekuumbwa kwenyeredzi nekuda kwekudhumhana pakati peGwararezhou ne Ghalaksi ra Andromeda. Zvakadaro, kuyerwa kwemamwe makwara enzou akafanana neGwararezhou zvinoratidza kuti mamwe maghalaksi senge Gwararezhou akatsvuka uye akajeka zvikurusa achiri kugadzira nyeredzi itsva uye inongoti piriviri zvishoma pane esikwenzi re ghalaksi riungu-ungu tsvuku.

Muchacha[chinja | edit source]

Kunyangwe hazvo hukama hwakakosha hunotaura kuti hapana "inofarirwa" inertial furemu yereferensi munzvimbo yekufananidza nayo Gwararezhou, iyo Gwararezhou ine velocity maererano necosmological mafuremu ereferensi .

Imwe yakadaro yereferensi ndiyo Hubble flow , mafambiro ari pachena emasumbu enyeredzi nekuda kwekuwedzera kwenzvimbo. Makwara enzou ega ega, anosanganisira Gwara renzou, ane manyawi akasiyana neavhareji yekuyerera. Nokudaro, kuenzanisa Gwararezhou nekuyerera kweHubble, munhu anofanira kufunga nezvevhoriyamu yakakura zvakakwana kuitira kuti kuwedzera kweUniverse kutonge pamusoro pezvinoitika, zvisingatarisirwi. Vhoriyamu yakakura yakaringana inoreva kuti kufamba kwemavara enyeredzi mukati mevhoriyamu iyi kwakaenzana nekuyerera kweHubble. Vazivi venyeredzi vanotenda kuti Gwara renzou riri kufamba pamakiromita angangosvika 630 km/s (1,400,000 mph) maererano nenharaunda iyi yekubatana-inofambisa chimiro. Gwararezhou iri kufamba munzira huru yeGreat Attractor uye mamwe mapoka egirazi , kusanganisira iyo Shapley supercluster , kuseri kwayo. Boka reNharaunda (boka remapoka enyeredzi akasungwa negiravhiti ane, pakati pemamwe, Gwararezhou ne Ghalaksi re Andromeda) chikamu cheboka guru rinonzi Gwambahuru Local, riri pedyo neVirgo Cluster : kunyange zvazvo vari kufamba kubva kune mumwe nemumwe. pa967 km/s (2,160,000 mph) sechikamu chekuyerera kweHubble, kumhanya uku kuri kushoma pane zvingatarisirwa kupihwa 16.8 miriyoni pc chinhambwe nekuda kwekukwezva kwegiravhiti pakati peLocal Group neVirgo Cluster.

Imwe referensi furemu inopihwa neiyo cosmic microwave kumashure (CMB), umo tembiricha yeCMB isinganyanyi kukanganiswa neDoppler shift (zero dipole chinguva). Iyo Gwara Rezhou iri kufamba pa552 ± 6 km/s (1,235,000 ± 13,000 mph)  maererano nefuremu iyi, yakananga ku10.5 kukwira kumusoro, -24 ° declination ( J2000 epoch, pedyo nepakati peHydra ). Kufamba uku kunoonekwa nemasatellite akadai seCosmic Background Explorer (COBE) uye Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) semupiro we dipole kuCMB, semafotoni ari mukuenzanisa muCMB furemu anowana bhuruu-inoshandurwa munzira yekufamba. uye tsvuku-yakachinjwakune rumwe rutivi.

Mashoko Okuziva[chinja | edit source]

  • isofoti - kureva "Isophote; Isophotal", izvo zvinoreva chiedza chakaenzanika
  • sebhe dzvipu kana sebhe isvipu - kureva "dark matter"
  • ghaṛaksi , ghaṛakasi - kureva "galaxy; star system"
    • uyu arikushandiswa kumirira 'r' aripakati pa "L" na "R" wamazuva ose.
  • Gwambahuru re virigo - kureva "virgo superclaster"
  1. Goodwin, S. P.; Gribbin, J.; Hendry, M. A. (August 1998). "The relative size of the Milky Way". The Observatory 118: 201–208. Bibcode:1998Obs...118..201G.