Kunyora

From Wikipedia
Mwana weChikoro achinyora
Kugwarwa kweTorah neMugwari (Scribing Torah by a Scriber)

Kunyora (Chingezi: to write; writing) kana kugwara uye kubhara chiito chekurhekodha mutauro pachiratidziro uchishandisa seti bumbiro re mabhii. Mabhii anofanhira kunge achizivikanwa nevamwe kuti akwanise kuverengwa.

Chinyorwa (text) runogonawo kushandisa mamwe masistimu ekuona, senge mailustresheni ne mashongedzo. Izvi hazvidanwi kunzi kunyora, asi zvinogona kubatsira kushanda kwe meseji. Kazhinji, vanhu vose vakadzidza munyika vanoshandisa nzira imwe cheteyo yokunyora kunyora mutauro wakafanana. Kugona kuverenga nekunyora kunonzi literate.

Kunyora kunosiyana nekutaura nekuti vaverengi havafanire kunge varipo panguva iyoyo. Tinogona kuverenga zvinyorwa zvekare, uye zvinyorwa zvinobva kumativi akasiyana pasirose. Zvichengetedzwa zvezvinyorwa ne zvikurukurwo zveruzivo. Kunyora ndechimwe chezvigadzirwa zvikuru zverudzi rwevanhu. Yakagadzirwa mushure mekunge vanhu vagara mumataundi, uye mushure mekutanga kurima. Mazuva ekunyora kubva kumakore angangoita 3,300BC, makore anopfuura 5000 apfuura, kuMabvazuva ePakati.

Kunyora nhasi kunowanzo kuve pabepa, kunyangwe paine nzira dzekudhinda pane chero nzvimbo. Terevhizheni ne zvikirini zvemafirimu zvinokwanisawo kuratidza kunyora, uye ndizvo zvinogona kuita zvemakombiyuta. Zvinhu zvakawanda zvokunyora zvakagadzirwa kare kare mapepa asati avapo. Rondo, nhokwe (papyrus), rukuni, slate ne dehwe (matehwe emhuka akagadzirwa) zvese zvakashandiswa. Varoma vainyora pamahwendefa ane wakisi nechinyoreso chakapinza; izvi zvakakurumbira kune zvinyorwa zvenguva pfupi uye mameseji. Kugadzirwa kwebepa kwakazoitwa nemaChichayina raive danho rakakura kumberi.

Kunyora kunogaroitwa pachishandiswa chishandiso chemaoko sepenzura, karamu, kana bhurasho. Zvizhinji uye zvakanyanya, zvisinei, zvinyorwa zvinogadzirwa nekupinza pakhibhodhi yekombiyuta.

Mhando ye kunyora[chinja | edit source]

  • Kucherenga kana kuparanga (scratch) - Ndiani akacherenga motokari: who has scratched the motor-car?
  • Kunemba (writing; noting; taking notes) nembo - apa kureva kunyora kwakare. MaKereke ndiwo akavamba zvekunemba dzidziso dzeChitendero mururimi rweChiShona.
  • Kutara mutaro kana rutsara (drawing)
  • Kukerura (scripting; writing)
  • Kutaratadza (scribbling; draw lines)
  • Kugwara (to write) izwi rinobva kuChiTonga rinoreva kunyora. Apa ndipo panobva mazwi anoti rugwaro kana kuti gwaro.
  • Kunwara (to write, to scratch; to type) zvichireva kunyora. Iri izwi rine dzitsi rimwero nerinoti chinwaro.
  • Kubhara apa,kureva kunyora. Kubhara four kureva kugara wakaturikidza makumbo.
  • Kudhinda (to stamp; sign; mark) muenzaniso 'dhinza siginecha apa', uye rinonzi futi kusaina kuba shoko reChirungu rekuti 'sign'. Chidhindo (a stamp; a signature)
  • Mutaro, rutaro, mutsetse, munhanzi kana murara (a line drawn or marked).
  • Gwaro kana rugwaro (document, something written, portion of writing) Kureva bepa rine zviro zvakanyorwapo.
  • Chinembo (something written; notes)

Mhando yeZvinyorwa[chinja | edit source]

N'wadhi (Nwadhi)[chinja | edit source]

N'wadhi kana Nwadhi (Book), kana Bhuku shoko rinobva kuChingezi.

Munhu anonyora kana kunwara (shoko rekare) zvinwadhi anonzi munyori kana munwari (writer).

Nyayatsva (novheri)[chinja | edit source]

Nyayatsva ishoko ririkushandiswa kumirira shoko rinogona kunzi Novheri (novel), vambo (etymology) rezita iri rinosanganisa mashoko maviri: nyaya (story), tsva (new) kubva kushoko reChiratini novella (new story; new news)

Bepa nePeji[chinja | edit source]

Bepa ishoko rinobva kuChirungu zvekare, uye rinomirira shoko rekuti paper muChirungu.

Uye shoko rekuti peji rinomiria rinonzi page muChirungu, uye rinobva futi kuchirungu chacho.

Mwamwe mashoko

Tsamba[chinja | edit source]

Tsamba kana mwadhi ishoko rinoshandiswa muSitandadhi Shona kumirira chinonzi 'letter' muChirungu. Muchinyakare cheVashona vakange vasina shoko reku siyanisa nwadhi ne tsamba (that is a letter and a book or page), zvese zvainzi nwadhi kana tsamba. Shoko reChirungu ndiro rinowanzo shandiswa kuti 'book', kwete N'wadhi asi vamwe vanorishandisa.

Skiriputi (Keruro; Chinyorwa)[chinja | edit source]

Keruro kana skiriputi kubva kuChirungu, ishoko rinomirira shoko rekuti script muChirungu. Nzira yeku sika keruro inonzi kukerura (scripting; writing) uye kunyora.

Chinembo[chinja | edit source]

Nembo kana Chinembo ishoko rinomirira shoko reChirungu rekuti 'notes', uye nzira yekunyora chinembo inogona kunzi kunemba (noting; note taking) kana kunyora.

Gwaro[chinja | edit source]

Iri shoko rinomirira chinonzi muChingezi 'document', uye nzira yekunyorwa Gwaro rinonzi kugwara (documenting; scribing) rimwe shoko rekuti kunyora. Mugwari munhu ndiye munhu anonyorwa rugwaro, muChirungu anonzi documenter (kana achinyora ma-documents uye scribe (munhu anoita zveku-scriber).

Nhetembo[chinja | edit source]

Nhetembo ishoko rinomira chinonzi poems; poems muChirungu, shoko rekuti nemba rinogona kunge rakasikwa richienderana nekunyora nhetembo. Munhu anoita zvenhetembo anonzi nyanduri (poet)

Tsaranziyo[chinja | edit source]

Tsaranziyo (lyrics) uye tsararwiyo (lyric) mashoko anotsangura mashoko kana nhetembo kana nyaya inoyimbwa munziyo, mumimhanzi.

Chitarwa[chinja | edit source]

Chitarwa kana Zvitarwa mashoko anomirira chinzo 'drawing; drawings'. Kutara (to draw; drawing).

Mutsetse[chinja | edit source]

Lines

Bharabhara (taratadza)[chinja | edit source]

Scribbling; scribbles

ChiBantu[chinja | edit source]

  • MaXhosa vanoti bhala kureva kunyora. VaFwe vanoti kun'ora (to write) kureva kunyora. VaWanga vanoti okhung'ola (v. to draw especially designs on a wall).
  • VaNyungwe vanoti kunemba (n. write) kureva kunyora. VaWabo vanoti oleba (write) vachireva kunyora. Vanobva vati mulebi (writer) kureva munyori.
  • VaChewa, VaYao neVaLenje vanoti kulemba (1. to write, to draw pictures; 2. make signs on a path to give directions). VaChewa vanoti malembo (writings).
  • VaGwere vanoti kuwandiika (write, scribble, record, document). Kuwandiikira (write to, write with). Muwandiiki (secretary, writer, clerk, publisher).
  • Giryama vanoti ku-ora (write) vachireva kunyora. Mamwe mazwi: maoro (n. writing). Zigula vanoti chidole (handwriting). VaKongo vanoti sona kana kusoneka (write).
  • VaDigo, VaTaita neSwahili vanoti andika kana kuandika (write, draw a picture, describe) vachireva kunyora kana kudhirowa. VaGanda vanoti okuwandiika.