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Ruzivo rwezve Physics[chinja | edit source]

Physics chidzidzo cheScience chine donzvo rokuti tinge tichinzwisisa nyika ino yatigere. Physics inotarisa mitemo inobata pakufamba nokudyidzana kwezvinhu zvose zviri panyika. Chidzidzo ichi chinoongorora kaumbwiro kakaitwa zviri munyika, kufamba kwazvo maringe nokufambawo nenguva uye nzvimbo. Chinodzidzisawo zvakare nhau pamusoro pemhando dzesimba uye ukama huripo pakati pesimba nokuitwa kwebasa.


Chinangwa[chinja | edit source]

Chinangwa chechinyorwa chino kuparura nhaurwa yezvidzidzo zvePhysics. Zvakakosha kuti tinge tichitanga nekutsangangura mazita atinosangana nawo pakukurukura Physics.

Dudziro yeMashoko Anowanikwa Muzvidzidzo zvePhysics[chinja | edit source]

Mukweso - Resistance

Mutemo (Laws)- sokuti mitemo yaNewton wokutanga, wepiri newechitatu. Mutemo inotsangudzwa netsazaniso dzinonyora ukama huripo pakati pezviyero zvakasiyana.

Rudzivo (Direction)- Iri izwi rapiwa kureva kunongedza divi riri kutaurwa nezvaro, riri kuenda chinhu kana force kana chipi chiyero chine nzenda.

Basa (Work)- Basa rinodudzirwa sesimba rinoshanda kana Fosi ichinge yafambisa chinhu zvinoenderana nedzivo yeFosi iyoyo. Basa rinoitwa chete kana Fosi ichinge yafamba nhambwe; Fosi isina chayafambisa hapana basa rinenge raitwa. Basa rine tsazaniso inoti, Basa = Fosi x nhambwe. Basa rinopimwa nechiyero chinonzi Joules.

Simba (Energy)- simba kupimwa kwehuwandu hwebasa rinotarisirwa kuitwa neGumbapamwe (system). Kune marudzi esimba akawanda ose anopimwa nechiyero chinonzi Joule - kunova kuyerwa kwesimba rinenge rashanda kana Fosi ye 1 newton yafamba nhambwe ye 1m ichisunda chinhu. Tsanangudzo yokuti chinonzi gumbapamwe chii iri kutevera mberi.

Pawa (Power)- izwi iri rinodudzira kuitwa kwebasa paumwe hwechiyero chenguva. Kuchivirika knopimwa nechiyero chinonzi Watt kana kuti (Joules/Second). Kana takatarisa mwenje wegetsi yakanyorwa kunzi 100Watts umwe 50Watts, kureva kuti mwenje wokutanga unoshandisa simba remagetsi rakapwetwa kaviri zvichienzaniswa nemwenje wechipiri. Uye tikatora varume vaviri wokutanga asenga masaga 50 echibage pa 4 awa, wepiri akasenga masaga echibage 50 pa 6 awa - wekutanga anenge ashanda nekuchivirika kwakakura pane wepiri.

manikidzo (Force)- Manikidzo tinoiwona mazuva ose panosundwa kana kuzvuviwa chinhu. Fosi inokenzera kuchinja kwemuchacha (speed), kuchinja kwedzivo, kana kuchinja kwemaumbirwo akaita chiumbwa (Shape)zvikuru sei takatarisana nezviumbwa zvisina kusimba. Fosi ine tsazaniso (equation) inoti F = huremu X kufangura. Fosi inopimwa nechiyero chinonzi Newton (N).

Puresha (Pressure)- izwi iri rapiwa kutsanangudza chiitiko chekunge Fosi iri kubata paumwe hwechiyero cheruvanze. Puresha inopimwa nechiyero chinonzi Pascal uye inopimwa nerudzivo rwakarurama panharaunda yakadzvanyiwa nepuresha yacho. Ngatitii tine zviumbwa zviviri chimwe nechimwe chine huremu hwe 100kg; ngatitizve chokutanga chakagara pauso hwe 1m2, chepiri chakagara pauso hwe 0,5m2. Zviumbwa zviviri zvine Fosi yakaenzana asi chiumbwa chakagara pauso hudiki hwe 0,5m2 ndicho chinodzvanya nepuresha yakakura.


Spidhi (Speed)- iri izwi rinodudza nhambwe yafambwa paumwe hwechiyero chenguva. Spidhi ine tsazaniso inoti Spidhi = (nhambwe/nguva); uye une chiyero chinonzi mita pa sekondi (m/s.) Spidhi haitarisi kuti nhambwe yafambwa pakatwasuka here nokuti hauna rudzivo runopimwa - uku ndiko kusiyana kwacho nemuchacha.


Muchacha (velocity)- iri izwi rinodudza nhambwe yafambwa nenzira yakatwasuka paumwe hwechiyero chenguva. Muchacha une tsazaniso inoti Muchacha = (nhambwe/nguva); uye une chiyero chinonzi mita pa sekondi (m/s). Muchacha unopimwa kushanduka kwerudzivo zvakare.

Rufangu (Acceleration)- iri izwi rinoreva kuchinja kwemuchacha paumwe hwechiyero chenguva. Kufangura kune chiyero (m/s2). Tsazaniso inoti Rufangu = (kuchinja kwemuchacha/nguva).

Gunganidzo (Gravity)- iri izwi rinotsanangudza chiitiko chinoonekwa pazviumbwa zvemuchadenga kuti zvinokweva chero chipi chiumbwa nefosi rine kukura kunoyenderana nehuremu hwezviumbwa. Fosi reguganidzo ndiro rinekweva mvura kuti iwungane munzvimbo dzakaderera uye kuti chinhu chichinge chakandwa mudenga chidzoke zvakare pasi.

Huremu (Mass)- huremu kupimwa kwehuwandu hwechinhu. Huremu hunopimwa nechiyero chinonzi kilogram (Kg).

Huduma (density) - iri izwi rinoreva huremu huchipimwa paumwe hwemumhu. Zvinhu zvakasiyana zvine huduma hwakasiyana; kusiyana kwehuduma kunoita kuti zvimwe zvinhu zviyangarare pamusoro pemvura zvimwe zvichinyura. Iri zita rapiwa richitoredzera paguduma rinove sango rine miti yakabatana zvakanyanya. Zvakanaka kuti tinge tichimutsurudza mazwi asingashandiswe mazuva ose tichiashandisa kutaura zvinhu zvatinowona mazuvano zvinoda kufanana nezvaireva mazwi aya kare.


Hujoto (temperature) chiyero chinopima kutonhora kana kupisa kuri kuita chiro kana nzvimbo. Hujoto hunodudza kuti chiro chinokwanisa kudziyisa chimwe zvakadii. Sokuti madziya (heat) anoyerera kubva panzvimbo pane hujoto hwe 100oCelsius kuenda kune hujoto hwe 40oCelsius.


Nguva (Time) - iri izwi rinoreva kupimwa kunoitwa kutaramukana kwakaita zviitiko; nguva inopimwa nechiyero chinonzi sekondi(s).

Dendera (Rotation) - iri izwi rinoshandiswa kana chiumbwa chichipoterera akiso yekufungidzira (imaginary axis) zvikuru sei kana akiso iri kunze kwechiumbwa ichochi. Muenzaniso kutenderera kunoita Earth ichipoterera zuva (sun) kamwe (1) pagore.

Kuziririka (Spinning) - iri izwi rinoshandiswa kana chiumbwa chiri kutenderera pa akiso iri pakati pechiumbwa zvikuru sei sei kana akiso ichidarika nepane goko rehuremu (centre of mass). Muenzaniso ungapiwa kuzeya kunoita Earth kamwe pazuva ichiziririka nepane akiso inopfuura nepagoko raiyo Earth.

Nhambwe (Distance)- iri izwi rinotsanangudza kuti nzvimbo iri kure zvakadii kubva kune imwe. Nhambwe inopimwa nechiyero chinonzi mita.

Govano (Ratio) - izwi iri rinoreva hukama huripo pakati penhamba mbiri dzine nzenda (dimensions) dzakafanana. Govano inonyorwa seizvi (a:b), izvi zvichitiudza kuti nhamba yechipiri inopinda kangani mune yokutanga. Muenzaniso ungapiwa ungati zvikwata zviviri zvenhabvu Guruve United neMhangura United zvanga zviine zvibodzwa 3:2 papera mutambo; apa govano yacho inenge iri 1.5. Umwe muenzaniso: pavakapedza kudiridza Sarudzai naChipo vakanga vane 30:15 migomo yemvura yavakatakura - apa govano yacho inenge iri 2. Tinoona kuti pamienzaniso yapiwa zvinhu zviri kufananidzwa zvine nzenda kana chiyero chakafanana.

Mudida (Rate)- izwi iri rinoreva hukama huripo pakati penhamba dzine nzenda dzakasiyana. Nokumwe kutaura Mudida unenge iri Govano yezvinhu zviviri zvine nzenda yakasiyana. Muenzaniso weMudida inosanganisira Muchacha(speed), kurova hwehana (Heart beat), Kuchivirika. Izvi zvataurwa zvine nzenda dzinoti: Muchacha (metres/second), kurova kwehana (beats/second), Kuchivirika (Joules/Second). Kazhinji Mudida unotaurwa kuchishandiswa nguva semupimo uri kufananidzwa nawo; asi tinogonawo kushandisa nhambwe, huremu zvichingodaro. Sokuti tarakita yangu inofamba 10km pa Rita repeturu, kana kuti nyama iri kutengwa nemutengo we $5 pa Kg.

Hwiriro (Kaendaenda, Frequency) - iri izwi rinoreva huwandu hwechiitiko chinodzokorora tichiverenga paumwe hwechiyero chenguva. Hwirira hunopimwa nechiyero chinonzi Hertz unove mupimo unoreva kuti chiitiko chiri kuitika kamwe pa sekondi imwe.

Dendera pa Mineti (Revolutions per minute)- iri izwi rinodudzira mudida wechiumbwa chiri kutenderera pa akiso uye kuchishandiswa Dendera pa Mineti sechiyero. Chiyero ichi chinoshandiswa zvakare kutaura mudida wezviumbwa zviri kuzeya zvichiita monerapo paAkiso iri pakati pechiumbwa chiri kutaurwa nezvacho.


  • Gumbapamwe (System) rinoreva kubatanidzwa pamwe munzvimbo imwe kwezvinhu zvine ukama huri kutarirwa. Gumbapamwe rine zvinhu zvinobatirana, nekurarama, nekudyidzana pamwe munzvimbo yakatarwa. Kuti titsanangure Gumbapamwe tinogona kusanganisira: nhengo dzirimo; zvinotaura mashandirwo emabasa; mitemo inotonga nhengo dzirimo; uye zvinyorwa zvinotaura ukama huripo pakati penhengo (elements, stakeholders) idzi; nekutara miganhu yerumana rweGumbapamwe, uye miganhu yezvinotenderwa (kana kusatenderwa) kuitika kana kuti kuva nhengo. Gumbapamwe rine ukama hunosimbiswa netsazaniso pakati pezvinopimwa (equations & relationships), maitirwo ezvirongwa (procedures & protocols), zvinyanye (extrema), zvichingodaro. Gumbapamwe - co-existing or working combined together.

Mashoko emwero wehuwandu[chinja | edit source]

Zvinyanye (Extrema) - iri shoko rinodudzira panogumira hukuru uye huduku hwemupimo uri kutaurwa nezvawo. Sokuti mvura inowanikwa pakati pezvinyanye zve 0-100o Celsius. Zvinyanye izita rapiwa richitora pakutaura kwemazuva ose patinoti "zvanyanya, zvanyanyisa kana kuti zvakanyanya - kuChirungu vachiti extreme or extremely". Kana totarisa humwe hweZvinyanye tinoti chinyanye (extremum, singular)

Nharire (Maximum) - iri izita rapiwa kududzira panogumira hukuru hwemupimo uri kutaurwa nezvawo. Sokuti muZimbabwe motokari dzinotenderwa nharire yemuchacha we 120 km/hr pamigwagwa mikuru. Mukutaura kwemazuva ose nharire inzvimbo yakakwirira, paive nemunhu airinda nyika yaShe achitarira kuti kune vavengi vanouya here.

Nhika (Minimum) - iri izita rapiwa kududzira panogumira huduku hwemupimo uri kutaurwa nezvawo. Sokuti hurumende inoronga kutara mari inotambiriswa vashandi ive panhika ye$150 pamwedzi. Pakutaura kwemazuva ose nhika inzvimbo iri pakadzika tichifananidza nenhraunda yenzvimbo iyoyo.

Katikati (Average) - iri izita rapiwa kudzudzira nhamba inowanikwa kana nhamba dziripo dzahwerengedzwa, dzichizogovaniswa nehuwandu hwenhamba dziripo. Sokuti vana vanopedza Chikoro ChePrimary vaine katikati yemakore 13 ekuberekwa.

Chiwanza (Mode) - iri zita rapiwa kududzira nhamba inoonekwa zvizhinji paboka renhamba dziri kutaurwa nezvadzo. Sokuti kana tiine boka (set) renhamba dzinotevera: 3,4,6,7,8,9,10,4,11,2,1,4; tinennge toti nhamba 4 ndiwo chiwanza

Misandu yeSebhe[chinja | edit source]

Misandu yeSebhe (States) - iri izwi rapiwa kududza chimiro chezvinhu zvinobatika nekuonekwa nekunzwikwa pakunge zvasvitswa panharaunda yakasiyana hujoto kana mutsindo (temperature and pressure). Kune misandu mitatu yemvura zvichienderana nehujoto hwemvura yacho.

Godo (solid) - iri izwi rapiwa kutsangudza chinhu chakaumbana chisingayerere chingafananidzwa nedombo kana simbi. Takatarisana nemvura tinoona inoita magodo emazaya echando (ice) kana mvura yatondodzwa zviri pasi pe 0 Celsius. Magodo haayerere uye anochengeta kuumbwa kwaakaitwa, pasina kutsindirika kwakanyanya kungaitwa.

Mutuvi (Liquid) - iri zita rapiwa kududza chinhu chine kutaridzika kunenge kwemvura inoyerera. Chinhu chine musandu weMutuvi chinoyerera uye chakadirwa mugapu, chinotora kuumbwa kwakaita gapu iroro zvichienderana nehuwandu wemutuvi wacho. Muenzaniso wemituvi inosanganisira mvura, mukaka, huchi, peturu, zvichingodaro. Iri zita rapiwa richitoredzera mutuvi unova mvura iya yemukaka.

Gasi (Gas) - iri zita rapiwa kuzvinhu zvinenga mweya watinofema, zvisingabatike, asi zvichigona kunzwika kuti zviripo. Gasi rinotambanuka kuzadza nzvimbo kana rongo raunenge wariiswa, zvakare rinogona kutsindirika kana puresha yawedzerwa. Mienzaniso yegasi inosanganidza oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide zvichingodaro

Vanhu vanemukurumbira mufundoyetsimba[chinja | edit source]