Karamu

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makaramu emavara akasiyana
ingi revura ungu ye karamu

Karamu (kutora izwi reChiswahiri; kalamu, kuChingezi: pen) kana peni kutora shoko reChingezi, imhando yechinyoreso kana chimbesa chekutara inoshadisa ingi kudhinda zvinyorwa pabepa. Ingi yekaramu inodhindwa pabepa ichibva yakurumidza kuoma.

Zita[chinja | edit source]

Shoko reChingezi rekuti pen rakabva kuChiratini, pashoko rekuti pinna rinoreva kuti nhenga. Zita iri ndiro rinotorwa kuChishona nevamwe kushandisa richinzi peni.

Pamusoro pezvo, shoko rekuti karamu rinobva kumitauro yeChibantu rinogona kunge rakabva kuChiarabhu. Rinoshandiswa neVaswahiri richinzi 'Kalamu', Vanyarwanda vanoti 'ikaramu'.

Mhando dzekaramu[chinja | edit source]

Karamu ye Tsanga[chinja | edit source]

Karamu dzetsanga ndidzo dazakatanga kushandiswa kare pamhando dzese dzakasiyana dzemakaramu. Dzaigadzirwa netsanga dzaimera muDheruta reNairu (Nile Delta). VaIjipita vekare vakadzisika, uye vakasika futi ingi yeruvara tema, vachishandisa chin'ai uye Chingamu cheArabhu. Makaramu avo aive ne manibhi (nibs) akatsemurwa ekudzora ingi paino yerera kuunhesva (tip) yekunyoresa. Dhizaini iyi iri simple ichiri kushandiswa kunyora bhara unake (calligraphy) mumazuva anhasi.

Karamu ye Nungu[chinja | edit source]

Karamu dzenungu ndezimwe mhando dzemakaramu dzakatanga kushandiswa kare. Karamu ye nungu inhenga ye shiri kana pakazhinji sekwe. End yenhenga (iyo nungu) kwaichengetwa kwakapinza uye yaifanirwa kunyikwa muingi mushure mekunyora mashoko mashoma.

Tsanga ne nungu makaramu ano nyikwa nekuti anofanhira kunyikwa muingi kakawanda munguva yekunyora kana kutara. Makaramu ekunyika emazuvano ane manibhi akagadzirwa nesimbi .

Karamu ye Chitubu[chinja | edit source]

Makaramu echitubu akafanana nemapeni ekunyika, asi anogona kubata ingi yakakwana mukati kuti anyore mapeji akati wandei asati azadzwa zvakare. Mukati, ingi inobatwa musaga (sac) kana katuriji (catridge).

Karamu ye Bhiro[chinja | edit source]

Karamu ye bhiro kazhinji ine mugodhi wepurastiki une chiwumbiko chehumburumbira unoiswa ingi uye idiki senge karamu yechitubu. Ine kabhora kadiki kakaoma ku end yekunyoresa ino kungurutsa ingi yacho pabepa.

Karamu ye Tsono[chinja | edit source]

Tsono kana starasi (stylus) ikaramu isinga kwanise kunyora pabepa, asi inogona kunyora pamusoro perondo (clay) kana wakisi (wax). Tsono kana stari yemuti kana simbi yakashandiswa kwezviuru zvemakore, semuenzaniso mukunyora cuneiform. Tsono yanhasi yekombiyuta pakazhinji dzakagadzirwa purastiki uye dzine zveugetsi (electronics) mukati. Inoshandiswa neskirini yekubata .

Karamu mutsika yanhasi[chinja | edit source]

Kuuya kwekombiyuta dzinoshandiswa nemunhu pachake, kwakadzikisa kudiwa kwekunyora pabepa. Kunyangwe zvakadaro, tsamba yakanyorwa pachayo inoratidza kuti "ndino kufunga zvakawanda kwazvo ndatora nguva ne simba kukunyorera tamba chaiyo."

Mamwe mapeji ekutarisa[chinja | edit source]

Mabviro eruzivo[chinja | edit source]