Muenzanisi

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Muchidzidzo chePimanyika, muenzanisi (equator) mutsetse unopangidza panosangana uso hweurungano nemutsendo une goko rehuremu uye wakarurama neakiso yeurungano yacho. Kureva kuti mutsendo uyu wakaita mutwi neaksio uye kuti wakatakuraGokwe rehuremu (centre of mass) yeurungano yacho. Iri zita rinoshandiswazve pakutsangudza kuumbwa kweRinopasi, (Earth).

Takatarisana neRinopasi, muenzanisi mutsetse wekufungidzira une nhambwe dzakaenzana kubva kuNorth Pole kusvika keSouth Pole panzvimbo dzose. Mutsetse uyu unocheka urungano yeRinopasi kuita zvikamu zviviri zvakaenzana.

Magonga eRinopasi[chinja | edit source]

Gonga rekuMaodzanyemba, (North pole) ndipo papoyindi panosangana uso neakiso yekuzeya yeRinopasi (Earth), kuri kuMaodzanyemba kweRinopasi, riri divi rakapesana neSouth pole .

Gonga rekuChamhembe, (South pole) ndipo papoyindi panosangana chiso neakiso yekuzeya yeRinopasi (Earth), kuri kuChamhembe kweRinopasi.

Muchinyorwa chino mativimana erudzivo (direction) achange achinyorwa achitanga nevara guru kuti zvive pachena kuti parikutaurwa rudzivo, kwete chimwewo chinhu.

Nyika dzinochekwa neMuenzanisi[chinja | edit source]

Mutsazanisi unopfuura nemunyika 11 dzinoti:

Kuronda nzvimbo panyika[chinja | edit source]

Muchidzidzo cheTaranyika (Geography), nyika yakatarwa nemhando mbiri dzemitsetse. Kune mitsetse yakatarwa yakati sambamba nemuenzanisi inonzi latitude; kune mitsetse inotenderera nyika ichibata kuNorth pole neSouth pole inonzi longitude. Mitsetse iyi inoshevedzwa nenhamba dzakarongeka. Nhamba dzemitsetse yelattitude dzinoveregwa dzichibva pamuenzanisi dzichienda kuNorth pole neSouth pole. Nhamba dzemitsetse yelongitude dzinoverengwa dzichibva pamutsetse weGreenwich Meridian zvichienda kuMavirira nekuMabvazuva. Greenwich Meridian mutsetse welongitude unopfuura pedyo neRoyal Observatory, Greenwich, kuUnited Kingdom. Naizvozvo nzvimbo dzose dziri panyika dzine nhamba inotaura kuti nzvimbo iri papi mudandemutande remitsetse iyoyi. Ruzivo urwu ndirwo rwakashandiswa muhumhizha hweGPS, Geographical Position System chinova chombo chinobatsira kutaura kuti tiri papi uye kupa rudzivo (direction) rwenzvimbo yatinoda kuenda.

Chirongwa chekutarwa kwenyika nenzira yatsananguwa iyi chinodanwa kunzi Geographic Coordinate System - kuChiShona tochiti Gumbapamwe reZviringani ZveTaranyika. Zita reChiShona iri rakaumbwa nenzira inotevera:

  • Gumbapamwe (System) rinoreva kubatanidzwa pamwe munzvimbo imwe kwezvinhu zvine ukama huri kutarirwa. Gumbapamwe rine zvinhu zvinobatirana, nekurarama, nekudyidzana pamwe munzvimbo yakatarwa. Kuti titsanangure Gumbapamwe tinogona kusanganisira: nhengo dzirimo; zvinotaura mashandirwo emabasa; mitemo inotonga nhengo dzirimo; uye zvinyorwa zvinotaura ukama huripo pakati penhengo (elements, stakeholders) idzi; nekutara miganhu yerumana rweGumbapamwe, uye miganhu yezvinotenderwa kana kusatenderwa kuitika kana kuti kuva nhengo. Gumbapamwe rine ukama hunosimbiswa netsazaniso pakati pezvinopimwa (equations & relationships), maitirwo ezvirongwa (procedures & protocols), zvinyanye (extrema), zvichingodaro. Gumbapamwe - co-existing or working combined together.
  • Zviringani (Coordinates) zvinoreva nhamba dzakarongeka dzinotevera mitaro yakatarwa dzinobatsira kuronda pane nzvimbo iri kutsvakwa.
  • Taranyika (Geography) - iri izwi riri kubva kumazwi ari kuEnglish anoti: geo rinoreva nyika (earth), uye graph rinoreva mutaro.

Latitude inopima nhambwe yegonyo riri pakati pemutsendo weMutsazanisi nemutsetse unobata pagoko reEarth kuenda panzvimbo ipi zvayo iri pauso hweEarth. Latitude inoverengwa ichibva paMutsazanisi une nhamba 0o; nhamba iyi inokwira zvichienda kuNorth pole - nhamba dzichipiwa vara (+). Nhamba yelatitude inodzika zvichenda kuSouth pole, nhamba dzichipiwa vara (-). Izvi zvinoreva kuti latitude 20o iri kuMaodzanyemba kweMuenzanisi; latitude -30o kana kuti 30oS iri kuChamhembe kweMutsazanisi. Mepu inotaridza mitsetse yelatitude ichibva kamadokero kuenda kumabvazuva.

Mitsetse yelatitude inodanwa kunzi tsambamba (parallels) nokuti inenge yakati sambamba, uye yakataramukana nhambwe dzakaenzana panzvimbo dzose. Kana 1o yelatitude yapimwa tsambamba dzinenge dzakataramukana 111km (kana 69maira). gonyo rapimirwa latitude ndiro zita rinopiwa tsambamba yacho ine nhambwe dzakaenzana kubva paMutsazanisi. Somuenzaniso 45o latitude ndiyo nhambwe yegonyo iri pakati peMutsazanisi ne tsambamba 45, (45th parallel). Saka 45th parallel inenge uri mutsetse wokuti nzvimbo dzese dziri pauri dzine latitude 45o.

Mitsetse yeLatitude yekurangarira

  • Muenzanisi uri pa 0o latitude. Latitude iyi yakakosha nokuti ndiyo inotara pakati-nepakati penyika; uri nhambwe dzakaenzana kubva kuNorth pole neSouth pole. Muenzanisi unosvikwa nemurazvo wezuva wakarurama (direct rays) panguva mbiri dzetsazahusiku (equinoxes). Mazuva etsazahusiku anoitika March 20-21 neSeptember 20-21 apo nzvimbo dzose dziri panyika dzinowana usiku hwakareba 12 maawa. Tsanangudzo izere inopiwa kuchikamu cheMwaka yepaNyika
  • Tropic of Cancer iri pa +23.5o; inopfuura munyika dzinoti Mexico, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India neChina. Tropic of Capricon iri pa -23.5oS; inopfuura munyika dzinoti Chile, Brazil, South Africa, Australia.
  • Tropic of Cancer inowana murazvo wezuva wakarurama pamazuva June 20-21; Tropic of Capricon inowana murazvo wezuva wakarurama pamazuva December 20-21. Nguva mbiri idzi dzinonzi solstice kuEnglish. Solstice izwi rinobva kuLatin rinoreva kumira kwezuva - zvisingarevi kuti zuva rinombofamba aiwa, asi kuti rinotora nguva refu kubva pakuyedza kusvika pakudoka zvoita sokunge rir kumbomira mudenga - kunyanya panguva ya 12 masikati parinenga riri kurova nhongonyo. KuChiShona toti solstice yochinzi zuvaragodza, kureva kuti ratora nguva yakareba zvikuru riri mudenga zvikurusei kunzvimbo dziri pamwaka wekupisa - summer.
  • Arctic Circle neAntarctica Circle dziri palatitude +66.5o ne -66.5o zvakaringana kudaro. Mitsetse miviri iyi inotara panotangira nzvimbo dzinowana 24 maawa erima nezuva - idzi nzvimbo dzakakomberedza North pole ne South pole.

Latitude yakakosherei?[chinja | edit source]

  • Latitude inobatsira vatyairi vendege nezvikepe kuronda nzira dzekufamba nadzo.
  • Latitude inobatsira vanotsvakurudza kunzwisisa hugaro hwezvinhu zviri panyika. Somuenzaniso nzvimbo dzine nhamba yelatitude yakakwirira dzinonyanya kutonhora uye dzine mhepo isina mupfunga wemvura wakawanda. Nzvimbo dzine nhamba yelatitude yakaderera dzinopisa uye dzine mhepo ine mwando wemvura wakakwirira.
  • Nzvimbo dzinenhamba yelatitude yakakwirira dzine musiyano wakanyanya wemwaka izvi zvichikonzerwa nokushaya zuva rakarurama mumwaka wechando nokuzowana zuva rakawanda mumwaka wekupisa. Musiyano yemwaka iyi inokonzera kusiyana kwemhuka nemumera unokwanisa kurarama munzvimbo idzodzi.
  • Imwe pfungwa inoti paChiShona mitsetse yelatitude ngaidanwe kunzi mitsetse yemuyeramwaka, nokuti mwaka yepanyika ine chekuita nokuti mirazvo yezuva iri kurova zvakanyanya palatitude ipi. Tsanangudzo iri muchidimbu yapiwa muchikamu chakanzi Mitsetse yelatitude yekurangarira. Chinyorwa cheMwaka yepaNyika chinowedzera kutsanangura kudyidzana kwemwaka nenzvimbo yelatitude iri kuwana mirazvo yezuva yakarurama - direct rays of the sun.