Svetuka kuchirochemo

Chizvarwa cheNyika

Kubva Wikipedia
(runangakatsva kubva kuHusanyika)

Mukutaura pamutemo, izwi rokuti chizvarwa kana sanyika (citizen kuChirungu) rinotaura hukama huripo pakati pemunhu nenyika yaari sanyika, zvikurusei rinodudza kodzero dzinopihwa munhu kana ari sanyika munyika iyi. Kuva sanyika munyika kunopa munhu kodzero dzinosanganisira: kodzero yekugara nokushanda munyika iyi; kodzero yokuripa mitero nekushandisa zvose zvinoripirwa nemitero iyi; kodzero yokuti ange achivhoterwa kana kuvhota munyaya dzematongerwo enyika iyoyi.

Pachinyorwa chino Ishe wenyika ari kunzi Muzvinanyika - lord of the land kana zvoturikirwa; kureva kuti ana sanyika vanhu vari pasi paShe asi zvichikwanisa kusanganisira Ishe pachake.

Kurerutsa Mutauro[chinjirudza | chinjirudza mabviro]

Kuva chizvarwa munyika hakureve kuti chizvarwa anofanirwa kunge ari munhu akazvarwa munyika iyi kwete; chakakosha ndiyo mvumo yokuva chizvarwa nekodzero dzezvizvarwa dzinopihwa nemitemo yenyika iyi. Vanhu vanokwanisa kuva zvizvarwa zvenyika zvichibva nenzira dzakasiyana, zvisinei kuti munhu akazvarwa munyika iyi kana kuti kwete.

Mukutaura kwemazuva ose tinoti vanhu vane zita rakafanana vanonzi ana sazita. Pakati pavo ana sazita hapana mumwe ane mvumo kana kodzero yezita kudarika mumwe, vose vane kodzero dzakaenzana pazita racho. Tiine mufungo mumwechete iwoyu, ana sanyika ndivo varidzi venyika imwecheteyo, uye vane mvumo nekodzero dzakaenzana munyika iyi.

Mipanda yehusanyika[chinjirudza | chinjirudza mabviro]

Husanyika hwemadzinza, (citizenship by descent) . Nyika zhinji dzinoti kana mwana akazvarwa nemubereki mumwe kana vabereki vose vane husanyika, mwana iyeyu anenge ari sanyika munyika iyi kana kuti ane kodzero yokuva sanyika munyika imweyo. Husanyika hunouya nenzira iyi hunobva pakuti munhu ane madzitateguru venyika iyi kana kuti anobva kurudzi rwuri munyika iyoyi. Nyika zhinji dzinotara miganu kuti husanyika hwemadzinza (citizenship by descent) hungatenderwa kusvika kumazera mangani akaberekwa kunze kwenyika iyoyi.

Husanyika hwekuzvarirwa munyikamo. (citizenship by birth) Nyika zhinji dzinotendera kuti mwana azvarwa munyika iyoyo ave nekodzero yehusanyika munyika yaazvarirwa. Husanyika hunouya nenzira iyi hunoti ikodzero nokuti azvarwa munyika yedu. Husanyika hwemhando iyi hwakanga huchitenderwa munyika zhinji dziri kuEurope kusanganisira kuEngland mumakore akare. Pari zvino nyika yeCanada inotendera husanyika hwekuzvarirwamo - citizenship by birth. Dambudziko rinokwanisa kuuya kunyika dzakabudirira nokuti vamwe vabereki vokunze kwenyika vasina husanyika munyika idzi vanoita sarudzo dzokuti madzimai avo vanosununguka pamuviri kunyika dzakabudirira kuti mwana ave sanyika.

Husanyika hweroora. (citizenship by marriage). Husanyika hunokwanisa kutenderwa kuburikidza nokunge munhu akaroorana nemurume kana mukadzi anenge ari sanyika wenyika iyoyi. Dambudziko riripowo zvakare nderekuti munhu wekunze kwenyika anoroorana nasanyika, kuri kuwanana kwenhema, iri nzira yekuti awane mvumo yehusanyika chete.

Husanyika hwevagodza - (citizenship by naturalization). Dzimwe nyika dzinotendera kuti munhu kana akatamira kunyika iyi ogogara munyika iyi makore akatarwa anenge ava sanyika munyika iyi. Mune dzimwe nhambo iye munhu atamiramo munyika iyi anosungungirwa kunyora bvunzo asati agachidzwa husanyika kana kuti anofanirwa kugura husanyika hwekune hwaaiva nahwo kune dzimwe nyika. Nokumwe kutaura tingati uhwu husanyika hwemakonzwa nokuti hunopihwa kumugari ane makonzwa anenge ari mugari agodza munyika makore akawanda.

Mipanda yevauyi[chinjirudza | chinjirudza mabviro]

Mugari ane Makonzwa munyika (permanent resident kuChirungu) munhu akatamira munyika achibva kunze asati agamuchidzwa husanyika asi aine mvumo yokugara munyika iyi. Munyika zhinji mugari ane makonzwa anopiwa mvumo pazvinhu zvinoti: kugara munyika; kushanda munyika; kuenda kuchikoro; kuripa mitero nekugashirawo zvinobva pakuripa mitero yacho. Asi mugari ane makonzwa haatenderwi kuvhota kana kukwikwidza semuyedzwa wesarudzo dzematongerwo enyika. Makare munhu ainzi ane makonzwa kana agamuchirwa mumusha kuva senhengo yemusha uyu.

Shoko rokuti mutorwa (stranger, foreigner) rinokwanisa kushandiswa kureva munhu asiri sanyika wenyika iyoyo. Iri shoko ndiro rakashandiswa kuturikira foreigner mumabhuku ebhaibheri, ndiro richashandiswa pazvinyorwa zvino. Vamwe mukutara kwemazuva ose vanoshandisa shoko rokuti mubvakure kureva munhu asina kuzvarirwa munyika iri kurehwa.

Mupoteri munhu ari kutiza njodzi dziri panzvimbo kana munyika yaanogara kuenda kumwe kwaari kutsvaga pokutizira paanokwanisa kurarama zvisina njodzi dzaari kutiza. Vapoteri vanotiza njodzi dzakasiyana dzinosanganisira: hondo; nzara; kushushwa kana kuurayiwa nekuda kwenyaya dzematongerwo enyika; baradzarudzi kana kushaikwa kwehushavi hunopa raramo yakanaka.

Mitauro yeBantu[chinjirudza | chinjirudza mabviro]

  • VaMambwe vanoti cikaya (1. the fact of being a resident in a country; 2. love for one's country, one's people). Mazwi Anotodzana: ukaya (citizenship).
  • VaMambwe vanoti -kaya (of local origin, or old thing as opposed to new one) kureva munhu wepo kana chinhu chitsaru.
  • VaNyarwanda vanoti kavukire (native, aboriginal, one born in country) kureva munhu akazvarirwa munyikamo. Mazwi Anotodzana: kuvuka (to be born) kureva kuzvarwa.
  • VaSwahili neZigula vanoti mwananchi (inhabitant of a country, citizen). VaDigo vanoti mwanatsi (citizen).
  • VaGungu vanoti musi kana basi (n. citizen, resident; s.b. born in a place where he has the right to settle).
  • VaChewa vanoti anzinda kana wanzinda (citizen).
  • VaKabwa vanoti omwenekyaro (citizen).