Gumbapamwe reZviringani ZveTaranyika

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Latitude and Longitude of the Earth.svg

Muchidzidzo cheTaranyika, (Geography), nyika yakatarwa nemhando mbiri dzemitsetse. Kune mitsetse yakatarwa yakati sambamba neMutsazanisi inonzi latitude; kune mitsetse inotenderera nyika ichibata kuNorth pole neSouth pole inonzi longitude. Mitsetse iyi inoshevedzwa nenhamba dzakarongeka. Nhamba dzemitsetse yelattitude dzinoveregwa dzichibva paMutsazanisi dzichienda kuNorth pole neSouth pole. Nhamba dzemitsetse yelongitude dzinoverengwa dzichibva pamutsetse weGreenwich Meridian zvichienda kuMavirira nekuMabvazuva. Greenwich Meridian mutsetse welongitude unopfuura pedyo neRoyal Observatory, Greenwich, kuUnited Kingdom. Naizvozvo nzvimbo dzose dziri panyika dzine nhamba inotaura kuti nzvimbo iri papi mudandemutande remitsetse iyoyi. Ruzivo urwu ndirwo rwakashandiswa muhumhizha hweGPS, Geographical Position System chinova chombo chinobatsira kutaura kuti tiri papi uye kupa rudzivo (direction) rwenzvimbo yatinoda kuenda.

Chirongwa chekutarwa kwenyika nenzira yatsananguwa iyi chinodanwa kunzi Geographic Coordinate System - kuChiShona tochiti Gumbapamwe reZviringani ZveTaranyika. Zita reChiShona iri rakaumbwa nenzira inotevera:

  • Gumbapamwe (System) rinoreva kubatanidzwa pamwe munzvimbo imwe kwezvinhu zvine ukama huri kutarirwa. Gumbapamwe rine zvinhu: zvinobatirana, kurarama, nekudyidzana pamwe munzvimbo yakatarwa. Kuti titsanangure Gumbapamwe tinogona kusanganisira: nhengo dzirimo; zvinotaura mashandirwo emabasa; mitemo inotonga nhengo dzirimo; uye zvinyorwa zvinotaura ukama huripo pakati penhengo (elements, stakeholders) idzi; nekutara miganhu yerumana rweGumbapamwe, uye miganhu yezvinotenderwa kana kusatenderwa kuitika kana kuti kuva nhengo. Gumbapamwe rine ukama hunosimbiswa netsazaniso pakati pezvinopimwa (equations & relationships), maitirwo ezvirongwa (procedures & protocols), zvinyanye (extrema), zvichingodaro. Gumbapamwe - co-existing or working combined together.
  • Zviringani (Coordinates) zvinoreva nhamba dzakarongeka dzinotevera mitaro yakatarwa dzinobatsira kuronda pane nzvimbo iri kutsvakwa.
  • Taranyika (Geography) - iri izwi riri kubva kumazwi ari kuEnglish anoti: geo rinoreva nyika (earth), uye graph rinoreva mutaro.

Latitude inopima nhambwe yegonya riri pakati peMutsazanisi nechimiso chiri kuMaodzanyemba kana kuChamhembe kweMutsazanisi; chimiso chinogona kunge chiri papi zvapo pauso hweEarth. Latitude inoverengwa ichibva paMutsazanisi uyo unopiwa nhamba 0o. Nhamba yelatitude inokwira zvichienda kuNorth pole - nhamba dzichipiwa vara (+), kudzamara dzasvika pa +90o. Nhamba yelatitude inodzika zvichenda kuSouth pole, nhamba dzichipiwa vara (-), kudzamara dzasvika pa -90o. Izvi zvinoreva kuti latitude 20o iri kuMaodzanyemba kweMutsazanisi; latitude -30o kana kuti 30oS iri kuChamhembe kweMutsazanisi. Mepu inotaridza mitsetse yelatitude ichibva kamadokero kuenda kumabvazuva.

Mitsetse yelatitude inodanwa kunzi tsambamba (parallels) nokuti inenge yakati sambamba, uye yakataramukana nhambwe dzakaenzana panzvimbo dzose. Kana 1o yelatitude yapimwa tsambamba dzinenge dzakataramukana 111km (kana 69maira). Kushama kwegonya rinopimwa palatitude yega-yega zvichibva paMutsazanisi, ndiro zita rinopiwa tsambamba yacho. Somuenzaniso 45o latitude ndiyo nhambwe yegonya iri pakati peMutsazanisi ne tsambamba 45, (45th parallel). Saka 45th parallel inenge uri mutsetse wokuti nzvimbo dzese dziri pauri dzine latitude 45o; uye tsambamba iri riri pahafu yenhambwe iri pakati peMutsazanisi neNorth pole.

Mitsetse yeLatitude yekurangarira[chinja | edit source]

  • Mutsazanisi uri pa 0o latitude. Latitude iyi yakakosha nokuti ndiyo inotara pakati-nepakati penyika; Mutsazanisi uri nhambwe dzakaenzana kubva kuNorth pole neSouth pole. Mutsazanisi unosvikwa nemurazvo wezuva wakarurama (direct rays) panguva mbiri dzeusikuhwakaenzana (equinoxes). Mazuva eusikuhwakaenzana anoitika March 20-21 neSeptember 20-21 apo nzvimbo dzose dziri panyika dzinowana usiku hwakareba 12h (maawa 12). Tsanangudzo izere inopiwa kuchikamu cheMwaka yepaNyika
  • Tropic of Cancer iri pa +23.5o; inopfuura munyika dzinoti Mexico, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India neChina. Tropic of Capricon iri pa -23.5oS; inopfuura munyika dzinoti Chile, Brazil, South Africa, Australia.
  • Tropic of Cancer inowana murazvo wezuva wakarurama pamazuva June 20-21; Tropic of Capricon inowana murazvo wezuva wakarurama pamazuva December 20-21. Nguva mbiri idzi dzinonzi solstice kuEnglish. Solstice izwi rinobva kuLatin rinoreva kumira kwezuva. Izvi zvisingarevi kuti zuva rinombofamba aiwa, asi kuti rinotora nguva refu kubva pakuyedza kusvika pakudoka zvoita sokunge riri kumbomira mudenga - kunyanya panguva ya 12:00hrs masikati parinenge riri kurova nhongonya.
  • Arctic Circle neAntarctica Circle dziri palatitude +66.5o ne -66.5o zvakaringana kudaro. Mitsetse miviri iyi inotara panotangira nzvimbo dzinowana 24h (maawa) erima pazuva rimwe mumwaka wechando (winter), uye 24h echiedza pazuva rimwe mumwaka wezhizha (summer). Nzvimbo idzi dzakakomberedza North pole ne South pole.

Longitude inopima nhambwe yegonya riri pakati pePrime (Greenwich) Meridian nechimiso chiri kuMabvazuva kana kuMadokero ePrime Meridian; chimiso chinogona kunge chiri papi zvapo pauso hweEarth. Longitude inoverengwa ichibva paPrime Meridian iyo inopiwa nhamba 0o. Nhamba yelongitude inokwira zvichienda kuMabvazuva - nhamba dzichipiwa vara (+), kudzamara dzasvika pa +180o. Nhamba yelongitude inodzika zvichenda kuMadokero, nhamba dzichipiwa vara (-), kudzamara dzasvika pa -180o. Izvi zvinoreva kuti longitude +20o iri kuMabvazuva kwePrime Meridian; longitude -30o iri kuMadokero kwePrime Meridian.

Nekumwe kunyora nzvimbo dziri kuMabvazuva kwePrime Meridian dzinonyorwa dzine vara rinotaridza East, sokuti +30o inenge yonzi 30oE. Nzvimbo dziri kuMadokero kwePrime Meridian dzinenge dzine vara rinotaridza West, sokuti -30o inenge yonzi 30oW. Nokuda kwekuti runyoro urwu runoshandiswa Pasirose tichasiya mavara anotaridza East neWest akadaro tisingaturikire kuenda kuShona.

Kujekesa Longitude - Pane nhambwe ye +180o kuenda kuMabvazuva kubva paPrime Meridian, zvakare pane nhambwe ye -180o kuenda kuMadokero kubva paPrime Meridian. Nhamba mbiri idzi dzinosangana dzichiratidza pane International Date Line apa panova panoverengwa kuti zuva repanyika rinotangira nekugumira. Izvi zvichireva kuti pakudarika International Date Line tichienda kuMadokero tinowedzera musi mumwe. Somuenzaniso, pakudarika International date Line tichienda kuMadokero tinobva pamusi weSvondo kudivi riri kuMabvazuva tichipinda pamusi weMuvhuro kudivi riri kuMadokero. Pakudarika International Date Line tichienda kuMabvazuva tinodzoka musi mumwe - sokuti kubva pamusi weMuvhuro kudivi riri kuMadokero tichipinda pamusi weSvondo kudivi riri kuMabvazuva.

Mepu dzinotaridza mitsetse yelongitude yakatarwa ichibata paNorth pole neSouth pole nerudzivo Maodzanyemba-Chamhembe (North-South). Mitsetse yese yelongitude inocheka Mutsazanisi uye yakarurama painocheka mitsetse yose yelatitude. Tiri paMutsazanisi, mitsetse yelongitude yakataramukana nhambwe inosvika 111km. KuNorth pole neSouth pole mitsetse iyi inonobatana; izvi zvichireva kuti nzvimbo mbiri idzi hadzina kupimwa chaiko kwelongitude.

Latitude neLongitude muZimbabwe[chinja | edit source]

Nyika yeZimbabwe iri murumana rwelatitude 20 00S nelongitude 30 00E. Zimbabwe iri pakati peMutsazanisi neTropic of Capricon, inova nzvimbo iri mudunhu reTropics rinowana murazvo wezuva zvakanyanya. Nzvimbo dziri muTropics dzinodziya nguva zhinji, kana tichienzanisa nenzvimbo dziri kunze kweTropics. Zvakadaro tinoda kuonesana kuti nyika yeZimbabwe inotonhorera zvichienzaniswa nedzimwe nzvimbo dziri mudunhu reTropics. Izvi zvinokonzerwa nokuti chikamu cheZimbabwe chiri panzvimbo yakakwirira inonzi duvurwi (plateau). Nzvimbo dziri pahukwidza (altitude) huri pamusoro dzinotonhorera pane nzvimbo dziri pahukwidza huri pasi.

Hezvinoi zviringani zveTaranyika zvemaguta ari muZimbabwe:

  • Harare iri palatitude nelongitude 17o43'S; 31o02'E
  • Bulawayo iri palatitude nelongitude 20o07'S; 28o32'E
  • Mutare iri palatitude nelongitude 18o58'S; 32o38'E
  • Gweru iri palatitude nelongitude 19o28'S; 29o45'E
  • Masvingo iri palatitude nelongitude 18o0'S; 27o0'E
  • Victoria Falls iri palatitude nelongitude 17o58'S; 25o52'E

Tamboonesana kuti Zimbabwe iri murumana rwune muyeranhambo (longitude) +30oE; pose panochinja muyeranhamo ne 15o, nguva inochinja neawa rimwe (1h). Zimbabwe inopiwa nguva yakawedzerwa 2h (maawa 2) zvichienzaniswa nenguva iri paPrime Meridian. Somuenzaniso kana nguva iri paPrime Meridian iri pa 06:00hrs, nguva yeZimbabwe inenge iri pa 08:00hrs. Nguva iri paPrime Meridian inonzi Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Nokumwe kutaura nguva yeZimbabwe inodanwa ichinzi GMT + 2hrs.