Hushangazhi

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Hushangazhi (Industry in English) zvinoreva nvzimbo dzinoitirwa mabasa ekugadzira zvinhu; kushumira nenzira dzakasiyana, nokukohwa zviwanikwa zviri muvhu kana muamasango. Tiri pahushangazhi zvakanaka kutsanangura kupiwa kwemazita matsva ari pano.


Mazita ezvinowanikwa pahushangazhi[chinja | edit source]

Kushangazhika (Industrious)- izwi iri rinoreva kushanda nesimba, munhu achiita mabasa mazhinji. Uyu munhu anoshangazhika, munhu anoshanda asina unyope.

Mushangazhi (Industrialist) - iri izita rapiwa kududza muridzi akatanga kambani yake. Pari zvino hatina izwi rinodudza kuti Industrialist tisina kuti muzvinabhizinisi.

Hushangazhi (Industry) - iri izita rapiwa kuti rireve nzvimbo dzose dzakavakirwa kuti vashandi vange vachisangana vachiita mabasa akasiyana-siyana. Muenzaniso ungapiwa ndewekuti muHarare tine Dunhu reHushangazhi reWillowvale - (Willowvale Industrial Area).

Mipanda yeHushangazhi[chinja | edit source]

Hushangazhi Hwekutanga (Primary Industry) - iri iboka rehushangazhi rinosanganisira: kurima mbesa, miti nemichero; kupfuya mhuka; kuredza hove, kuchera mabwe nesimbi zvichingodaro. Hushangazhi hwekutanga hunechekuita nemabasa anokohwa zviwanikwa zviri muvhu nezvinokura muvhu. Mimwe mienzaniso yeHushangazhi Hwekutanga yatinowana muZimbabwe ndeiyi: kurima nzimbe, chibage, nedonje; kuchera mugodhi ye ndarama, mhangura, zeng'e, platinum, marasha(coal) neChrome; kurima michero yemaranjisi, kurima miti yemapuranga.

Hushangazhi Hwepiri (Secondary Industry) - iri iboka reHushangazhi rinoshandura zvibereko zvinobuda muHushangazhi hwekutanga kuita zvinhu zvinoshandiswa mazuva ose. Zvibereko zveHushangazhi Hwepiri zvinoshandiswa mudzimba, mumabasa uye zvinogona kushanda mune mamwe mapoka eHushangazhi Hwepiri. Mimwe mienzaniso yatinowana muZimbabwe ndeiyi: kugadzira shangu; kugaya chibage kuita hupfu; kuveza midziyo yemumba; kuruka machira zvichingodaro.

Hushangazhi Hwetatu (Tertiary Industry) iri iboka reHushangazhi rinoshumira mumabasa akasiyana-siyana; zvibereko zveHushangazhi uhwu hazvisiri zvinhu zvinobatika asi kubatsira kuwanikwa nekufambiswa kwezvinhu zvinobatika. Marudzi eHushangazhi Hwetatu anosanganisira maBhangi; Zvitoro; Kufambiswa kwezvinhu pamwe nevanhu; Insurance; mabasa eHurumende, matare emhosva; maHotera; nzvimbo dzemafaro nedzekushanya, zvichingodaro. Iri boka reHushangazhi rine chekuita nekusvitsa Hushumiri (Service) kuvanhu uye kune mamwe mapoka eHushangazhi.

Zvinopinda muHushangazhi[chinja | edit source]

Chikamu chino chinotsanangudza zvinodikanwa kuti Hushangazhi hunge huchifamba nenzira yakanaka inounza budiriro. Zvinopinda muHushangazhi (Industrial Inputs) zvinosanganisira: zvinhu zvinobatika; zvivakwa; zvirongwa zveHurumende; zvirongwa zvekuwanikwa kwemari; kuchengetedzwa kwemitemo; kutsiva mari inorasika munjodzi; zvichingodaro.

Vambe, huvambe (Capital)- iri zita rapiwa rinoreva mari inounganidzwa nemushangazhi kutanga bhizinisi kana hushangazhi. Zita iri ribatawo zvakare zvimwe zvinodiwa kutanga bhizinizi, zvinoti: michina, nzvimbo yokushandira, zvivakwa, zvichingodaro. Huvambe hunounganinzwa nenzira dzakasiyana dzinoti: zvikwereti zvema Bhangi, mari yakachengetedzwa, uye kutsvaka mari pamusika wemari (Stock Exchange).

Nzvimbo yekushandira (Land) - mhando dzose dzehushangazhi dzinoda nzvimbo yekushandira ingava: minda, masango, zvivakwa, mahofisi kana mafakitari.

Magetsi (Electricity)- Magetsi akakosha kana tatarisana nehushangazhi hwanhasi nokuti michina mizhnji inosundwa nesimba nemagetsi. Zvakanyanya kukosha kuva nemagetsi akabaka nguva dzose kuti makambani asarase mari achibhadhara vashandi vakatarira michina isiri kushanda.

Vanhu vane Hunyanzvi (Skilled People)- mabasa anobatwa muhushangazhi anodaidzira hunyanzwi hwepamusoro, hungava hunyanzwi hunodzidziswa muzvikoro zvetatu (tertiary education) kana kuti hunyanzwi hunowanikwa pakambani. Makambani nehurumende vanoshandisa mari yakawanda kudzidzisa hunyanzwi zvemabasa akasiyana-siyana.

Michina yeHushangazhi (Plant, Machines, Equipment)- kune mhando dzakasiyana-siyana dzemichina zvichienderana nebasa riri kushandwa. Michina mizhinji inosundwa nemagetsi uye inotengwa nemari zhinji. Pari zvino michina mizhinji inoshandiswa muhushangazhi muZimbabwe, inotengwa kunze kwenyika zvikuru kunyika dziri mhiri kwemakungwa - nyika dzekuEurope neAsia.

Ruzivo RweHumhizha (Technology)- kuti hushangazhi huvepo panofanirwa kuve nehumhizha hwacho hwekugadzira kana kushumira nenzira inobuditsa zvibereko zviri kutengwa nevanhu. Sokuti kuchera ndarama panodiwa kunge paine humizha hunosanganisira: kudhuura matombo pasi pemugodhi, kutakura chitofu (ore) kubva mumugodhi, mhandambwe dzinopwanya nekutseta chitofu (crushers & mills), nezvimwe zvakawanda zvinosvitsa pakuve nechidhinha chendarama.

Mari yeZvirikwereti (Bank Loans)

Mari yeTsivatsaona (Insurance)- Tsivatsaona chirongwa chinobatsira vemabhizinisi munguva yokunge nzvimbo dzavo dzehushangazhi dzarasikirwa nemari kuburikidza nenjodzi dzinoitika muhushangazhi. Vamabhizinisi vanoripa muripo kuKambani dzeTsivatsaona (Insurance) mwedzi wega-wega; musi unoitika tsaona munzvimbo yehushangazhi, makambani eTsivatsaona anotsiva hukoshi hwechinhu chinenge charasika mutsaona. Izvi zvinobatsira kuti vemabhizinisi vakwanise kudzoka pakushanda zvakare mushure metsaona. Kambani dzeTsivatsaona dzinogamuchira mudeme-mudeme kubva kumabhizinisi akawanda, izvi zvichibatsira kuti pave nehomwe yemari inoshandiswa musi unoitika tsaona kune avo vanenge vakaita mudeme-mudeme.

Zvirongwa zveTsivatsaona zvinofukidzira kurasikirwa kungaitwa mutsaona dzingava dzemotokari, dzemichina, kutsva nemoto, kukuvara kwevashandi pabasa, rufu nezvimwe zvinenge zvakabvumiranwa kunzi zvive zvakafukidzwa. Kune mitemo yehurumende inopa zvisungo zvokuti vashandi vange vakafukidzirwa pasi petsivatsaona. Zvakare kune mhando dzemitoro isingatenderwe kufamba pamigwagwa isina kutererwa netsivatsaona.

Mitemo yeNyika (Legislation, Policies, Regulations) - Mitemo yenyika yakakosha zvikuru kana tatarisana nesarudzo yokuti muzvinabhizinisi ovaka nzvimbo yohushangazhi kupi. Mitemo yenyika inodudza kuti zviri nyore sei kuvamba bhizinisi munzvimbo dzakasiyana-siyana. Zvinhu zvinotariswa nevanovamba mabhizinisi zvinosanganisira: mitero inoripwa nemakambani; mitemo inochengetedza kodzero dzokunge munhu ari muzvinabhizinisi; mitemo inotonga kuburitswa nekuchengetwa kwemari yokunze kwenyika; mitemo inotaura nezvekuchengetedzwa kwezviwanikwa nenharaunda iri kushandira hushangazhi, zvichingodaro.

Kutakurwa kweNhumbi (Transport) - hakuna nzvimbo inganzi inowanikwa zvinhu zvose zvinodikwa kushandiwa muhushangazhi, kana kuti inowanikwa musika yokutengesera zvabuda muhushangazhi. Apa ndipo pazvinokosha kuti pange pane migwagwa, njanji, ndege nedzimwe mhando dzokufambisa nadzo mbatya nevanhu, kuunza kunzvimbo dzehushangazhi uye kusvitsa kumusika yakasiyana-siyana. Tichoitarisa nyika yedu yeZimbabwe tinoona hushangazhi hwakasimbiswa nekuvapo kwenjanji, nemigwagwa.

Suwo (Port of Entry kuEnglish) inzvimbo inopindwa nayo nevanhu pamwe nenhumbi. Takatarisana nehushangazhi, mukova inzvimbo yakatenderwa pamutemo wenyika kuti ipindwe nayo nevanhu kana nhumbi. Pamitemo yenyika pamukova iyoyi ndipo chete panotenderwa kupinda kwevanhu nenhumbi. Suwo reBeitbridge ndiro rinopinda nenhumbi dzakawanda dzinopinda muZimbabwe.


Kuchengetedza Mitemo (Law Enforcement) - vemabhizinisi vanofara kuziva kuti nzvimbo dzehushangazhi dzavo dzinge dzakachengetedzwa pasi pemitemo uye kuti mbatya dzavanofambisa dzinge dzakachengetedzawo. Izvi zvinovapa kuva nechikuvimba kuti vane rutsigiro pasi pemitemo kana musi wasvika wokuti pane zvinoda kunotongwa kumatare edzimhosva.

Zvirongwa ZveHutano (Health Programs) - Kuvapo kwezvipatara kunosimbisawo hushangazhi zvikurusei takatarisana nekuti vashandi vave nekuchengetedzwa kwehutano.

Bundutso (Processes)- pasi pechikamu cheRuzivo rwehumhizha, Bundutso zvinoreva zvirongwa zvakatsikiswa zvinoshandiswa mukushandura nhumbi dzinopinda muhushangazhi kuti dzive zvibereko zvinokwanisa kutengeseka. Somuenzaniso, gasi reAmmonia rinogadzirwa kuchishandiswa Bundutso raHaber (Haber process). Petrol inowanikwa kubva kuPetroleum kuchishandiswa Bundutso rinonzi Fractional Distilation Process. Sugar inobikwa kuChiredzi kuchishandiswa Bundutso rinonzi pachiNdau kuBumhaCrystallization Process.

Hudaviri neHutongi muHushangazhi[chinja | edit source]

(Responsible Authorities). Pakushanda kunoita hushangazhi pane mapazi ehurumende ane hudaviri pamusoro pezvirongwa zvakasiyana-siyana zvine chinangwa chekuchengetedza mitemo yenyika. Mapazi aya akapiwa hutongi (authority) kuti ave anotarira kuti mitemo yakasiyana yehurumende yatevedzwa. Mapazi aya anobata basa zvichienderana nemitemo yakatarwa nedare reParamende - (Acts of Parliament). MuZimbabwe kune Mapazi ane hutongi pamusoro: pemvura; mitero; ndege, kutakurwa kwenhumbi nevanhu; uye michero nemhuka. Muenzaniso ndiyo inoti: Zimra; Zimre; Zinwa; Zinara; Municipalities; Natural Resources Board; Environmental Protection Authority; Civil Aviation Authority zvichingodaro.