Kuponiwa

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Kuponiwa
Tsanangudzo uye kumwe kunowanika mashoko
Kuponiwa

Kuzvara, uko kunonziwo kusununguka kana kubereka, ndiyo mhedzisiro yenhumbu zvichibva pakuti mwana kana kuti vana vanenge vabuda muchibereko chamai.[1] Muna 2015 kuzvara kunokwana mamiriyoni 135 kwakaitika pasi rose.[2] Vanenge mamiriyoni 15 vakaberekwa mavhiki 37 enhumbu asati akwana,[3] ukuwo vari pakati pe3 kusvika 12% vakaberekwa pashure pemavhiki 42.[4] Munyika dzakabudirira vana vakawanda vanozvarirwa muzvipatara,[5][6] nepo munyika dzichiri kubudurira vana vakawanda vanozvarirwa kumba paine rubatsiro rwanyamukuta.[7]

Vana vakawanda vanozvarwa vachiita zvekubuda nekusikarudzi.[8] Izvi zvinoitika mumatanho matatu: anoti kupfupika uye kuvhurika kwemuromo wechibereko, kudzika uye kuzvarwa kwemwana, kwozouya kusundirwa panze kwerukuvhute.[9] Danho rekutanga rinowanzotora maawa 12 kusvika ku19, danho rechipiri maminitsi 20 kusvika kumaawa maviri, uye danho rechitatu maminitsi mashanu kusvika ku30.[10] Danho rekutanga rinotanga nekukaka nechemudumbu kana kurwadziwa kumusana kwenguva inokwana hafu yeminiti asi kuchiitika pamaminitsi 10 kusvika 30 ega ega.[9] Marwadzo ekukaka anoramba achiwedzera uye nguva yaanombomira kuitika inoramba ichishomeka nekufamba kwenguva.[10] Mudanho rechipiri munogona kuitika kusungika kunoparira kuti mwana atange kusundwa.[10] Mudanho rechitatu kunonoka kusunga rukuvhute zvinokurudzirwa chaizvo.[11] Pane zvinogona kubatsira kuderedza marwadzo zvakadai sekubatsira kuti munhu anzwe akazorora, mishonga inonzi maopioid, uyewo mishonga inokonzera chiveve.[10]

Vana vakawanda vanotanga kubudisa musoro; zvisinei vanokwana 4% vanotanga nemakumbo kana garo izvo zvinonyanya kuzivikanwa sebreech.[10][12] Munguva yemarwadzo ekubereka mukadzi anogona hake kudya uye kufamba famba madiro, kusunda mwana hakukurudzirwi mudanho rekutanga kana panguva yekuti musoro uri kubuda, uye hazvikurudzirwi kuiswa enema.[13] Nepo zvekucheka muromo wesikarudzi zvichiitwa chaizvo, uye zvichizivikanwa nezita rekuti episiotomy, kakawanda hapana chikonzero chekuzviita.[10] Muna 2012, kuzvara kunokwana mamiriyoni 23 kwakashandisirwa oparesheni inozivikanwa nekuti Caesarean section.[14] Oparesheni yeCaesarean section inogona kunzi iitwe kana ari manyambiri, zvaoneka kuti mwana ava kukanganiswa, kana kuti aita breech.[10] Zvinotora nguva yakareba kuti munhu apore pamazvariro aya.[10]

Gore negore matambudziko ane chekuita nenhumbu uye kuzvara anokonzera madzimai 500 000 kufa nepamuviri, vanokwana mamiriyoni 7 vanoita matambudziko akanyanya uye enguva refu, uye mamiriyoni 50 vanotanga matambudziko eutano anokonzerwa nekuzvara.[15] Kakawanda izvi zvinoitika munyika dzichiri kubudirira.[15] Matambudziko acho anosanganisira kuvharidzirwa kwenzira inobuda nemwana, kuramba ropa richibuda pashure pekuberekwa kwemwana, pfari, uye kupinda kweutachiona munzira inobuda nemwana pashure pekuberekwa kwemwana.[15] Matambudziko anosangana nemwana anosanganisira kushaya mhepo yokufema pakuberekwa.[16]

Kunowanika mamwe mashoko[chinja | edit source]

  1. Martin, Elizabeth. Concise Colour Medical Dictionary (in English). Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 9780199687992. 
  2. "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. July 11, 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  3. "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". WHO. November 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  4. Buck, Germaine M.; Platt, Robert W. (2011). Reproductive and perinatal epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780199857746. 
  5. Co-Operation, Organisation for Economic; Development (2009). Doing better for children. Paris: OECD. p. 105. ISBN 9789264059344. 
  6. Olsen, O; Clausen, JA (12 September 2012). "Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (9): CD000352. PMID 22972043. 
  7. Fossard, Esta de; Bailey, Michael (2016). Communication for Behavior Change: Volume lll: Using Entertainment–Education for Distance Education. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 9789351507581. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  8. Memon, HU; Handa, VL (May 2013). "Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders.". Women's health (London, England) 9 (3): 265–77; quiz 276–7. PMID 23638782. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Birth". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6 ed.). Columbia University Press. 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-30 from Encyclopedia.com. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 "Pregnancy Labor and Birth". Women's Health. September 27, 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  11. McDonald, SJ; Middleton, P; Dowswell, T; Morris, PS (11 July 2013). "Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD004074. PMID 23843134. 
  12. Hofmeyr, GJ; Hannah, M; Lawrie, TA (21 July 2015). "Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD000166. PMID 26196961. 
  13. Childbirth: Labour, Delivery and Immediate Postpartum Care (in English). World Health Organization. 2015. p. Chapter D. ISBN 978-92-4-154935-6. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  14. Molina, G; Weiser, TG; Lipsitz, SR; Esquivel, MM; Uribe-Leitz, T; Azad, T; Shah, N; Semrau, K; Berry, WR; Gawande, AA; Haynes, AB (1 December 2015). "Relationship Between Cesarean Delivery Rate and Maternal and Neonatal Mortality". JAMA 314 (21): 2263–70. PMID 26624825. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15553. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Education material for teachers of midwifery : midwifery education modules (2nd ed.). Geneva [Switzerland]: World Health Organisation. 2008. p. 3. ISBN 978-92-4-154666-9. 
  16. Martin, Richard J.; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Walsh, Michele C. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant (in English). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 116. ISBN 9780323295376.