Bumbiro re Mabhi

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Peji rino rinoda kuverengwa nekugadziriswa.

Bumbiro re Mabhi (Nge. alphabet, Chishongrish: Arufabheti) inzira yekunyora, rondedzero yezviratidzo zvekunyora. Zviratidzo zvekutanga muarufabheti zvinonzi mabhii. Mubumbiro remabhi, bhii rimwe nerimwe chiratidzo cheruzha kana manzwi ane hukama. Kuita kuti arufabheti ishande zvirinani, mamwe masaini anobatsira muverengi: zviratidzo zvepumikira, nzvimbo, gwara rekuverenga, zvichingodaro.

Iro zita alfabheti rinobva kuna Aleph neBeth , mabhii maviri ekutanga muBumbiro re Mabhi e Chifenike .

Chinyorwa ichi chakanyorwa mabhii eChirhoma (kana bumbiro re mabhi eChiratini). Yakatanga kushandiswa muRoma Yekare kunyora Chiratini. Mitauro mizhinji inoshandisa bumbiro re mabhi ye Chiratini: ndiyo inonyanya kushandiswa arufabheti nhasi.

Rangarirai kuti bumbiro re mabhi rakasiyana ne kekuro (iyo inonzi Skiriputi ne Chishongrish kutodza Chingezi chinoti Script).

Mabumbiro e mabhi[chinja | edit source]

Zvinoita sekuti pfungwa ye bumbiro remabhi- keruro yakavakirwa paruzha - yakakopwa uye yakagadziridzwa kuti ienderane nemitauro yakawanda yakasiyana. Kunyangwe pasina bumbiro re mabhi inokodzera mutauro wayo zvakakwana, anochinjika zvakakwana kuti akwane chero mutauro. Bumbiro re mabhi chaive chinhu chakasiyana nemamwe.  p12

Bumbiro re mabhi eChirhoma, Chikirili (kana Chikirira), nemamwe mashoma anobva mubumbiro re mabhi ekare e Chigiriki , inotangira makore angangoita 1100 kusvika 800 BC .  p167 Bumbiro re mabhi re Chigiriki aingangove akagadziridzwa kubva murunyoro rweChifeniki , iyo yakamboonekwa kare, uye ine mamwe mabhii akafanana.

Vafenike vaitaura mutauro weChishemu (kana Chisemiti), waiwanzonzi muKenaani. Boka remitauro ye Chishemu rinosanganisira Chiarabhu, Chimaruta (kana Chimalta), Chihebheru uyezve Chiaramu , mutauro unotaurwa na Yesu . Hatizivi zvakawanda nezvekuti pfungwa ye bumbiro re mabhi akatanga sei, asi Vafenike, vanhu vaitengesa, vakauya nemabhii akachinjwa ne Vagiriki vepakutanga kuti vabudise bumbiro re mabhi ravo. Musiyano mukuru ndewokuti manyorero eFenike akanga asina mavhawero chaiwo . Manyorero eChiarabhu ane mavhawero anogona, kana kusagona, kuratidzwa nemavara (madiki madiki kumusoro kana pasi pemutsara).  Manyoro ekare eKurani aive asina madhairekitori. Vayisiraeri kusvika kugiredhi rechitatu vanoshandisa zvinyorwa zveChihebheru zvine 'madotsi' evhawero.  p89

Hapana chinyorwa chekare, bumbiro re mabhi kana kwete, chaive nemavhawero akachena pamberi peVagiriki. Bumbiro re mabhi e Chigiriki inotova nemavhawero maviri (Eta) uye (Epsilon) e 'e' uye maviri (Omega na Omicron ) e 'o ', kusiyanisa pakati pemanzwi marefu neapfupi.  Zvinoita sekunge kufunga kwakangwarira kwakapinda mune zvese zvakagadzirwa ne Chifenike uye kuchinjika kwe Chigiriki, asi hapana ruzivo runopona pane chero maitiro.

Manyoro eChishemu sezviri pachena anobva kuProto-Sinai , chinyorwa icho chete 31 zvinyorwa (pamwe ne17 zvisina chokwadi) zvinozivikanwa. Zvinofungidzirwa nevamwe vatsvakurudzi kuti mavambo echinyorwa ichi chaiva chinyorwa che chihyerati chechiIjipita, icho pakazopera Umambo hwo Pakati (munenge muna 1900 BC ) chakanga chawedzera zviratidzo zvearufabheti zvekumiririra makonzonendi emazita edzimwe nyika. Chiitiko cheIjipita muSinai chakanga chakakwirira panguva iyoyo. Pfungwa yakafanana yakanga yambotaurwa makore mazhinji apfuura.

Rondedzero pfupi ye mabumbiro e mabhi[chinja | edit source]

Rondedzero yemaarufabheti nemienzaniso yemitauro yavanoshandiswa pa:

  • Proto-Sinaitic script
  • Arufabheti yeFenikiya , yaishandiswa muFenikiya yekare .
  • Arufabheti yechiGiriki , inoshandiswa kuchiGiriki
  • Arufabheti yechiRoma (kana kuti arufabheti yechiLatin), inonyanya kushandiswa nhasi
  • Arabic alphabet , inoshandiswa kuArabic , Urdu nePersian
  • Arufabheti yechiHebheru , inoshandiswa kuchiHebheru , Ladino (muIsrael chete) uye Yiddish
  • Devanagari , inoshandiswa kumitauro yakawanda yekuIndia
  • Cyrillic alphabet , iyo yakavakirwa paarufabheti yechiGiriki, inoshandiswa kuRussia neBulgarian
  • Hangul , inoshandiswa kuKorea
  • Etiopic

Mamwe masistimu ekunyora[chinja | edit source]

Mamwe manyorero haashandisi mabhii, asi anoita (pamwe muchikamu) anomiririra manzwi. Semuenzaniso, masisitimu mazhinji anomiririra masirairi . Kare manyorero akadaro aishandiswa netsika dzakawanda, asi nhasi anenge achingoshandiswa nemitauro inotaurwa nevanhu muAsia . A syllabary inzira yekunyora yakafanana nearufabheti. Sirabhasi inoshandisa chiratidzo chimwe kuratidza syllable yeshoko, panzvimbo pechiratidzo chimwe chebhii rega rega reshoko. Semuenzaniso, syllabary ingashandisa chiratidzo chimwe kureva syllable "ga", pachinzvimbo chemavara maviri ealfabheti "g" uye "a".

  • ChiJapanese chinoshandisa musanganiswa wezvinyorwa zvekuChina ( kanji ) uye syllabaries maviri anonzi hiragana ne katakana . ChiJapan chemazuva ano chinowanzo shandisawo romaji , inova syllabary yechiJapan yakanyorwa muarufabheti yechiRoma.
  • MaKorea akashandisa manyorero echiChinese munguva yakapfuura, asi vakagadzira arufabheti yavo pachavo inonzi hangul .

Pakutanga, 1200 BC mudzinza reShang , mavara echiChinese ainyanya "pictographic", vachishandisa mifananidzo kuratidza mazwi kana pfungwa. Ikozvino chete 1% yemavara echiChinese ndiwo ane pictographic.  p97 97% yemavara emazuva ano mavara eSP. Aya ndiwo maviri ezviratidzo, imwe inoreva ( s emantics) uye imwe yacho yekududza .  p99 Kazhinji zvikamu zveP neS zvinosanganiswa kuita hunhu humwechete.

Chinese hausi mumwe mutauro unotaurwa, asi mazhinji, asi imwecheteyo sisitimu yekunyora inoshandiswa kune vese. Manyorero aya akagadziridzwa kakawanda.

Mapeji anoenderana[chinja | edit source]

Mabviro eruzivo[chinja | edit source]

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