Huwandu

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Zvidzidzo zwehuwandu (arithmetic) zvidzidzo zveMasvomhu zvinoongorora nezve maverengerwo nokuwanda kwezvinhu. Vanhu tese tinoshandisa ruzivo rwehuwandu mumabasa ese kubva mukuverenga zvinhu kusvikira kumabasa akaita sekuvaka nekutengeserana zvinhu.

Huwandu mukushaiwa/mukudzokera shure nehuwandu mukuwana/mukuenderera mberi[chinja | edit source]

Huwandu hwechinhu hunoitikira mukuwana kana mukushaiwa.

Huwandu hwechinhu hunoitikawo mukuenderera kumashure kana kumberi.

Kana pasina chinhu, pane 0, uye hapana huwandu mukuwana/kuenderera kumashure kana mukushaiwa/kuenderera kumberi.

Muenzaniso:

-a: huwandu hunoita a mukudzokera kumashure, apo chiperengo a chakamirira chiperengo chohuwandu.

+a: huwandu hunoita a mukuenderera mberi, apo chiperengo a chakamirira chiperengo chohuwandu.

-4: huwandu huna mukushaiwa kana kuti mukuenderera kumashure.

+6: huwandu hutanhatu mukuwana kana kuti mukuenderera kumberi

Tichazoda kutsvaka mashoko anomirira + na - kana zvichishandiswa sezvataugwa pamusoro apo.


Zvingaitwa kuzviperengo zvehuwandu[chinja | edit source]

Kuwedzanisa (+)[chinja | edit source]

10 + 5 = 15: Kubwerengedza zvinhu gumi nezvinhu zvishanu zvinotipa zvinhu gumi nezvishanu

Mashandisigo echiperengo, + pano apa zvasiyana nemashandisigo achaitwa muchikamu chiri pamusoro apo. Pano apa + chinonzi chiratidzo chewedzaniso (plus sign) kana kuti chiwedzero (Tinogona kuchipawo zita rokuti chidzero tichirangarirawo Bernard Chidzero uyo munyori wegwaro renyaya rokutanga muChiVanhu rinonzi "Chinzvengamutsvairo").


Kubvisa (-)[chinja | edit source]

a - b zvinoreva kuti huwandu hunosara pakubvisa zvinhu b kubva muzvinhu a.

Muenzaniso;

6 - 4 = 2: zviviri ndihwo huwandu hunosara mukubvisa zvhinhu zvina kubva muzvitanhatu

Pane hukama pakati pekuwedzanisa nekubvisa. Kubvisa kwakafanana nekuwedzanisa zvauinazvo nezvawakakwereta uchirangarira kuti zvawakakwereta zvinoita kuti zvauinazvo zvive zvishoma nehuwandu hwezvikwereti.


Maunga huwandu (x)[chinja | edit source]

Maunga huwandu (multiplying in English) enhamba mbiri chiitiko chakafanana nekudzokorora wedzaniso yenhamba idzi. Apa nhamba yekutanga inenge ichiwedzaniswa kanokwana kuenzana nenhamba yechipiri. Somuenzaniso kana nhatu (3) achiungwa kana (4), mhinduro inowanikwa nokuwedzanisa nhatu (3) kanokwana kana (4) sezvizvi:


3 \times 4 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12.\!\,


Pamuenzaniso wapiwa pamusoro: 3 X 4 = 12. Apa kureva kuti, zvinhu gumi nezviviri (12) ndihwo huwandu hunobuda pakuunga zvinhu zvitatu (3) kanokwana kana (4). Nemamwe matauriro chaunga chezvinhu gumi nezviviri chinobuda pakuti chimwe nechimwe chemapoka matatu chabereka kana kuunganidza zvinhu zvina.


Izwi rokuti chaunga riri kushandiswa pano kureva multiple kuEnglish, kana kuti zvinhu zvizhinji. Pamuenzaniso uri pamusoro tingati pane mapoka mana (4), rimwe nerimwe rine nhengo nhatu (3) ari kuunganidzwa achizopa chaunga chenhengo gumi nembiri.


Pakutaura jikerere a x b kana kuti ab zvinoreva kuti kuunga huwandu hwenhamba a nenhamba b. Nekumwe kutaura zvinoreva kuti tsvaga huwandu hunobuda pakuti chimwe nechimwe chezvinhu a chinobereka zvinhu b .


Saka pakuturikira multiplication inenge ichinzi Maunga huwandu, multiplying yonzi iyo kuunga huwandu.


Kukamura kana kuti Govaniso (/)[chinja | edit source]

a/b zvinoreva kuti Huwandu hunodiwa nechimwe nechimwe chezvinhu zvinosvika b pakugovanisa zvinhu a zvakaenzanirana.

Muenzaniso:

12/3 = 4: Huwandu hunodiwa nechimwe nechimwe chezvitatu kubva mukugovanisa zvinhu gumi nezviviri zvinhu zvina.

Pane hukama pakati pekutsama nekugovanisa. Kugovanisa zvakafanana nekutsama nedimbu reMuravanegumi.


Kuradanuka[chinja | edit source]

Kuradanuka (Exponentiation in English) chiitiko chinonyorwa sezvizvi, bn, chinotora nhamba mbiri, hwaro b ne muradanuri (kana munongedzi or simba) n. Kana n ari nhamba izere iri hombe pana zero, kuradanuka kwakafanana nokudzokorora tsamaniso. Izvi zvinonyorwa sezvizvi:


b^n = \underbrace{b \times \cdots \times b}_n,

zvinoda unofanana ne rutsamo inodzokorora wedzaniso:


b \times n = \underbrace{b + \cdots + b}_n.

Muradanuri ndiye anonzi ‘’exponent’’ kuEnglish


Kutsinhanisa[chinja | edit source]

Shoko rokuti kutsinhanisa (Exchange in English) rinoreva kupesana kwenhumbi dzirikutengeswa nemari, kana kupesana kwenhumbi dziri kutengeswa nedzimwe nhumbi dziri kutengeswa. Apa nenhumbi nenhumbi kana nhumbi nemari zvinenge zviine hukoshi hwakaenzana. Paya munhu anotenga chingwa kuchitoro tingati pane kutenderana kuti chingwa nemari yapiwa zvakakosha zvakaenzana.


Dimbu[chinja | edit source]

Kana \tfrac12 yekeke ichiwedzerwa ku\tfrac14, zvikamu izvi zvinofanirwa kushandurwa kuti zvive nedumazita rakaenzana.

Shoko rokuti dimbu (fraction in English) rinoreva chikamu kubva pane chinhu chizere chose. Dimbu kana richinyorwa rinotaura kuti pane zvikamu zvingani zvakaenzana, sokuti zvitatu-kubva-pazvina (3/4), chimwe-kubva-pazviviri (1/2), zvina-kubva-pazvisere (4/7). Pakunyora muchidimbu tichati 4/7 inonyorwa ichingonzi zvikamu zvina-pazvisere.


Mashoko emwero wehuwandu[chinja | edit source]

Zvinyanye (Extrema) - iri shoko rinodudzira panogumira hukuru uye huduku hwemupimo uri kutaurwa nezvawo. Sokuti mvura inowanikwa pakati pezvinyanye zve 0-100o Celsius. Zvinyanye izita rapiwa richitora pakutaura kwemazuva ose patinoti "zvanyanya, zvanyanyisa kana kuti zvakanyanya - kuChirungu vachiti extreme or extremely". Kana totarisa humwe hweZvinyanye tinoti chinyanye (extremum, singular)

Nharire (Maximum) - iri izita rapiwa kududzira panogumira hukuru hwemupimo uri kutaurwa nezvawo. Sokuti muZimbabwe motokari dzinotenderwa nharire yemuchacha we 120 km/hr pamigwagwa mikuru. Mukutaura kwemazuva ose nharire inzvimbo yakakwirira, paive nemunhu airinda nyika yaShe achitarira kuti kune vavengi vanouya here.

Nhika (Minimum) - iri izita rapiwa kududzira panogumira huduku hwemupimo uri kutaurwa nezvawo. Sokuti hurumende inoronga kutara mari inotambiriswa vashandi ive panhika ye$150 pamwedzi. Pakutaura kwemazuva ose nhika inzvimbo iri pakadzika tichifananidza nenhraunda yenzvimbo iyoyo.

Mwanza (Average) - iri izita rapiwa kudzudzira nhamba inowanikwa kana nhamba dziripo dzahwerengedzwa, dzichizogovaniswa nehuwandu hwenhamba dziripo. Sokuti vana vanopedza Chikoro ChePrimary vaine mwanza wemakore 13 ekuberekwa.

Chikuwo (Mode) - iri zita rapiwa kududzira nhamba inoonekwa zvizhinji paboka renhamba dziri kutaurwa nezvadzo. Sokuti kana tiine boka (set) renhamba dzinotevera: 3,4,6,7,8,9,10,4,11,2,1,4; tinennge toti nhamba 4 ndiye guwo.

Chipakati (median in English) ndiyo nhamba iri pakati penzimwe kana dzichinge dzarongwa maererano nehukuru hwadzo. Sokuti kana pane nhamba dzinoti 1,2,3,5,7,8,9,11,12,15,18,27,30 chipakati anenge ari 9 nokuti ane nhamba nhanhatu kurudyi nekuruboshwe.

Hukuru (Magnitude) - iri izwi rinotaura kukura kwakaita nhamba zvisinei kuti ine vara (-) kana (=) pamberi payo. Sokuti -50 ine hukuru hwakaenzana ne +50, nyangwe zvavo nhamba mbiri idzi dzakasiyana pahuwandu hwadzo. +50 yakawanda pane -50.


Masvomhu T
Pimanzvimbo Chiyero chekupimisa | Mutsetse | Chiumbwa | Hurefu | Hwasha | Hudzamu | Hukwidza | Gonya | Sambamba | Twasuka | Munyonga | Hubumbe | Hufombwe | Mutwi | rurama | Sandarara | Mutsendo | Nharaunda | Uso | Mumhu | Chimiso | Nzenda | Zviringani | Tsazaniso | Mutsazanisi | Chidzudzani | Kupimirana | Gonyazhinji: Gonyanhatu (Gonyanhatu tsazakose | Gonyanhatu tsazakose | Gonyanhatu yemutwi) | Gonyaina (Gonyaina tsazamativi | Gonyaina sambamba | Gonyaina tsazamakonya | Gonyaina sambambiri | Skweya) | Denderedzwa (Nhara | Pimadanho | Danhamakonya | Pimamuganhu) | Zhumwi (Chikunguru | Urungano | Charaka | Dumba | Akiso)
Huwandu Kubwerengedza/kuwedzera | Kubvisa | Kutsinhanisa | Kukamura kana kuti kugovanisa
Zviperengo zvehuwandu chipasina | motsi | piri | tatu | china | shanu | tanhatu | nomwe | sere | pfumbamwe | gumi | zana | chiuru