Zera re Ndarira

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Zera re Ndarira
↑ Chalcolithic
Afurika, Mabvazuva ariPedyo (c. 3300–1200 BC)
Kudonha kweLate Zera re Ndarira
Indian subcontinent (c. 3300–1200 BC)
Indus Valley Civilisation

Bronze Age India

Ochre Coloured Pottery Cemetery H

Yuropu (c. 3200–600 BC)
  • Aegean (Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean),
  • Caucasus,
  • Catacomb culture,
  • Srubnaya culture,
  • Bell Beaker culture,
  • Apennine culture,
  • Terramare culture,
  • Unetice culture,
  • Tumulus culture,
  • Urnfield culture,
  • Proto-Villanovan culture,
  • Hallstatt culture,
  • Canegrate culture,
  • Golasecca culture,
Atlantic Bronze Age,

Bronze Age Britain,

Nordic Bronze Age

Yurezhiya ne Sibheriya (c. 2700–700 BC)
  • Poltavka culture,
  • Abashevo culture,
  • Sintashta culture,
  • Andronovo culture,
  • Mezhovskaya culture,
  • Cherkaskul culture
Mabvazuva eEzhiya (c. 3100–300 BC)
  • Erlitou,
  • Erligang,
  • Gojoseon,
  • Jomon,
  • Majiayao,
  • Mumun,
  • Qijia,
  • Siwa,
  • Wucheng,
  • Xindian,
  • Yueshi,
  • Xia dynasty,
  • Shang dynasty,
  • Sanxingdui,
  • Zhou dynasty
  • ndarira ye zaruni
  • kunyora
  • uvaranomwe
  • sword
  • chariot
Zera re Utare

Zera re Ndarira (Nge. Bronze Age) izeragore (piriyodhi; era) yenhoroondo, ingangoita 3300 PK kusvika 1200 PK, yaizivikanwa nekushandiswa kwendarira, mune dzimwe nzvimbo chimodza-kunyora (proto-writing), uye mukutanga kuratidzika kwe chisivhiri chiri ebheni (urban civilisation). Zera re Ndarira ndiro raive nguva yechipiri yakakosha musistimu ye mazera-matatu, sezvakatsanangurwa muna 1836 na Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, yekupanganisa uye kudzidza nzanga dzekare ne nhoroondo.

Chisivhiri chekare chinoonekwa sechikamu cheZera re Ndarira nekuti yaigadzira ndarira nekunyungudutsa kwayo mhangura uye nekuisanganisa negaba, zaruni (aruseni), kana dzimwe simbi, kana kutengesa zvimwe zvinhu zvendarira kubva kunzvimbo dzekugadzira kumwe kunhu. Ndarira yakangeyakaoma uye yakasimba kudarika dzimwe simbi dzaivapo panguva iyoyo, zvakaita kuti masivhiri eZera re Ndarira akwanise kuwana ruzivo rwe ruambaunyanzvi (tekinoroji).

Nepo utare yepasi yakasikwa yakawanda, poyindi yakakwira yekunyungudika yayo i 1,538 °C (2,800 °F) yakaiisa kusingasvikike kushandiswa nevakawanda kusvika pakupera kwemileniyamu re chipiri PK. Poyindi yakadzika ye kunyungudika kwe Gaba i 231.9 °C (449.4 °F) uye mhangura ine poyindo ye kunyungudika iri pachipakati ye 1,085 °C (1,985 °F) yakaita kuti vanhu vakwanise kugadzira hari dze mabisiro[1] e Uneyoriti (Neolithic pottery kilns), iyo yakadzokera ku6,000 PK uye yakakwanisa kugadzira hujoto hwunopfuura 900 °C (1,650 °F). Mhangura uye magaba isimbi dziri nharangani, sezvo pakanga pasina magaba endarira muMadokero eEzhiya isati yatanga kutengeserana nebhuronzi mumileniyamu ye chitatu PK. Pasi rese, iyo Zera re Ndarira raiwanzo tevera zeragore ye Uneyoriti, ne Ucharukoriti (chalcolithic) inoshanda seshanduko.

Zera re Ndarira itsika dzainge dzakasiyana mukukura kwadzo kwekunyora. Maererano nouchapupu hwokuchera matongo, tsika dzokuMesopotamia (cuneiform script) ne Ijipita (hirogifisi) dzakagadzira masistimu okunyora akutanga kushandiswa.

Mashoko ashandisa[chinja | edit source]

Mabviro eruzivo[chinja | edit source]

  1. https://vashona.com/en/dictionary/en/kiln