Zera re Utare

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Zera re Utare
Zera re Ndarira
Nhoroondo ye Chinyakare

Zera re Utare (kuChingezi: iron age; age of iron) kana nguva ye utare, i-epoch yekupedzisira ye rupatsanuro rwe epoch ye zera-tatu ye mshuremenhoroondo uye proto-nhoroondo ye vanhu. Yakateerwa ne Zera re Dombo (Paryotiki, Mesoritiki, Niyoritiki, uye Karyukotiki) uye Zera re Ndarira. Pfungwa iyi yakanyanya kushandiswa kuYuropu neKare kwePedyo Mabvazuva, asi zvakare, nekuenzanisa, kune dzimwe nzvimbo dzeNyika Yekare.

Dhuresheni ye Zera reUtare inosiyana zvichienderana nedunhu riri kutariswa. Inotsanangurwa nechibvumirano chekuchera matongo. Iro "Zera re Utare" inotanga munharaunda kana kugadzirwa kwe simbi kana chisa kwazvo kusvika padanho rekuti maturusi (tools) eutare nezvombo zvinotsiva zvakaenzana ne ndarira mukunyanya kushandiswa. MuChinykare kwePedyo Mabvazuva, shanduko iyi yakaitika mumashure meiyo inonzi Zera re Ndarira kuparara, muzana ramakore rechi 12 BC. Tekinorojia yakakurumidza kupararira munzvimbo yese yeMedhiteraniya Bhasini uye kuChemhembe cheEzhiya. Yakawedzera kupararira kuEzhiya ye Pakati, Mabvazuva e Yuropu, uye Yuropu ye Pakati kwakati kunonokerwa, uye Maodzanyemba e Yuropu haina kusvika kusvika gare gare, munenge muna 500 BC.

Iro Zera re Utare inotorwa kuti ipere, zvakare negungano, nekutanga kwenhoroondo rhekkodhi. Izvi kazhinji hazvimiriri kuputsa kwakajeka muzvinyorwa zvekuchera matongo; ye Kare Pedyo Mabvazuva, kugadzwa kweEmpaya ye Akeminidhi c. 550 BC ndeyechinyakare uye ichiri kutorwa sezuva rekugumisira, mazuva anotevera achitorwa senhoroondo nekuda kwerekodhi naHerodotus, kunyangwe marhekkodhi akanyorwa kubva kare kare (kare muZera re Ndarira) ave kuzivikanwa. MuPakati ne Madokero eYuropu, kukunda kweRoma kwezana ramakore rekutanga BC kunoshanda sechiratidzo chekupera kweZera re Utare. Iro Zera re Utare re Jerumani ye Skananevhiya inotorwa kupera c. AD 800, nekutanga kweZera re Vhaikin'i.

MuZasi-Ziwumba re Indiya, iyo Zera re Utare inotorwa kutanga nesimbi yePainted Grey Ware tsika. Kufungidzira kwazvino kunoratidza kuti inotangira muzana ramakore rechi 15 BC, kusvika pakutonga kweAshoka muzana ramakore rechitatu BC. Kushandiswa kweizwi rekuti "Zera re Utare" mukuchera matongo kuMabvazuva, Chamhembe, uye Chamhembemabvazuva eEzhiya kwave kuchangopfuura uye kushoma zvakanyanya kupfuura kumadokero kweYurezhiya. KuChayina, nhoroondo yakanyorwa yakatanga kusati kwasvika simbi, saka izwi iri hariwanzo shandiswa. Saheru (Dunhu reSudhani) neZasi-Sahara Afurika dziri kunze kwehurongwa hwemakore matatu, pasina Zera re Ndarira, asi izwi rekuti "Zera re Utare" dzimwe nguva rinoshandiswa kureva tsika dzekutanga kudzidzira simbi, senge Tsika ye Nok muNaijeriya.

Mamwe mazwi[chinja | edit source]

  • zeraregore (age; era; period)
  • rusafuri/musafuri - brass
  • mhangura - copper
  • utare - gold
  • ndarira - bronze