Maperembudzi

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Maperembudzi
Tsanangudzo uye kumwe kunowanika mashoko
ICD/CIM-10 A30 A30
ICD/CIM-9 030 030
OMIM 246300
DiseasesDB 8478
MedlinePlus 001347

Maperembudzi, ayo anozivikanwawo nokuti Hansen's disease (HD), utachiona hwenguva yakareba hunokonzerwa nebhakiteria Mycobacterium leprae[1] uye Mycobacterium lepromatosis.[2] Pakutanga, hapana zviratidzo zveutachiona uye izvi zvinowanzoramba zvakadaro kwemakore 5 kusvika 20.[1] Zviratidzo zvinozobuda zvinosanganisira kubumba munzvimbo dzemanevhi, munofamba nemhepo yokufema, muganda, uye mumaziso.[1] Izvi zvinogona kuguma munhu asisanzwe kurwadziwa zvoita kuti arasikirwe nemicheto yemuviri pamusana pekuramba achikuvara kana kukanganiswa neutachiona asi iye asinganzwi kuti ava nemaronda.[3] Zvinogona kuitikawo kuti munhu ashaye simba kana kutadza kuona zvakanaka.[3]

Maperembudzi anotapuriranwa muvanhu. Zvinodavirwa kuti izvi zvinoitika pakukosora kana pakugunzva mvura dzemumhino yemunhu ane utachiona.[4] Maperembudzi anonyanya kuitika kuvaya vanogara muurombo uye zvinodavirwa kuti anoparadzirwa netumadonhwe twemvura inobuda pakufema.[3] Kusiyana nezvagara zvichifungidzirwa, maperembudzi haasi chirwere chinonyanya kutapukira.[3] Mhando mbiri dzechirwere ichi dzinosiyaniswa nekuwanda kwemabhakiteria anenge aripo: kune mhando yepaucibacillary neyemultibacillary.[3] Mhando mbiri dzacho dzinosiyaniswa nekuti pane makamba mangani eruvara rusina kunyatsonaka, eganda risisanzwi kurwadza, paucibacillary iine mashanu kana mashoma uye multibacillary iine anodarika mashanu.[3] Zvinozonyatsonzi munhu ane chirwere chacho kana ganda rake rikatorwa robva rawanika riine bhakiteriya bhakiteriya rinoramba kuchinjwa ruvara neacid kana kuti atariswa DNA pachishandiswa nzira yepolymerase chain reaction.[3]

Maperembudzi anorapika pachishandiswa mibatanidzwa yemishonga kana kuti pachirungu multidrug therapy (MDT)[1] Kana ari maperembudzi epaucibacillary, panoshandiswa mushonga wedapsone newerifampicin kwemwedzi mitanhatu.[3] Kana ari maperembudzi emultibacillary panoshandiswa werifampicin, dapsone, neweclofazimine kwemwedzi 12.[3] Nzira idzi dzokurapa dzinoitwa mahara neWorld Health Organization.[1] Mimwewo mishonga inouraya utachiona (antibiotics) inogona kushandiswa.[3] Muna 2012, vanokwana 189,000 vaiva nechirwere ichi chenguva refu zvichireva kuti vakanga vadzikira kubva pamamiriyoni 5.2 vekuma1980.[1][5][6] Vakabatwa kekutanga nechirwere chacho vaiva 230,000.[1] Vakawanda vevakabatwa kekutanga ndevemunyika dzinokwana 16, uye vanodarika hafu yavo vari vokuIndia.[1][3] Mumakore 20 adarika, vanhu vanokwana mamiriyoni 16 pasi rose vakarapwa chirwere chemaperembudzi.[1] Vanokwana 200 vanobatwa nechirwere ichi pagore muUnited States.[7]

Vanhu vatambudzwa nemaperembudzi kwezviuru zvemakore.[3] Zita rechirwere ichi rinobva pashoko rechiLatin rokuti lepra, kureva "kuva nemakamba", asi rokuti "Hansen's disease" richibva pane rachiremba Gerhard Armauer Hansen.[3] Zvokuchengeta varwere mumisha yevane maperembudzi kwavanenge vari kwavo vega zvichiri kuitwa munzvimbo dzakadai seIndia,[8] China,[9] nomuAfrica.[10] Asi misha yevane maperembudzi yakawanda yakatovharwa sezvo chirwere chemaperembudzi chisinganyanyotapukire.[10] Kusarurwa nevamwe kwevarwere ndiyo nyaya hombe kubva kare, uye izvi ndizvo zvinotadzisa vanenge vabatwa nechirwere chacho kubuda pachena vorapwa nguva ichiripo.[1] Mashoko okuti "une maperembudzi" anogona kugumbura vamwe.[11] Zuva Repasi Rose Remaperembudzi rakatangwa muna 1954 kuitira kuti vaya vane chirwere ichi vafungwewo nezvavo.[12]

Kunowanika mamwe mashoko[chinja | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 "Leprosy Fact sheet N°101". World Health Organization. Jan 2014. 
  2. "New Leprosy Bacterium: Scientists Use Genetic Fingerprint To Nail 'Killing Organism'". ScienceDaily. 2008-11-28. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Suzuki K, Akama T, Kawashima A, Yoshihara A, Yotsu RR, Ishii N (February 2012). "Current status of leprosy: epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives.". The Journal of dermatology 39 (2): 121–9. PMID 21973237. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2011.01370.x. 
  4. "Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Transmission". cdc.gov. April 29, 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  5. "Global leprosy situation, 2012". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 87 (34): 317–28. August 2012. PMID 22919737. 
  6. Rodrigues LC, Lockwood DNj (June 2011). "Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps.". The Lancet infectious diseases 11 (6): 464–70. PMID 21616456. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70006-8. 
  7. "Hansen's Disease Data & Statistics". Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  8. Walsh F (2007-03-31). "The hidden suffering of India's lepers". BBC News. 
  9. Lyn TE (2006-09-13). "Ignorance breeds leper colonies in China". Independat News & Media. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Byrne, Joseph P. (2008). Encyclopedia of pestilence, pandemics, and plagues. Westport, Conn.[u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 351. ISBN 9780313341021. 
  11. editors, Enrico Nunzi, Cesare Massone, (2012). Leprosy a practical guide. Milan: Springer. p. 326. ISBN 9788847023765. 
  12. McMenamin, Dorothy (2011). Leprosy and stigma in the South Pacific : a region-by-region history with first person accounts. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 17. ISBN 9780786463237.