Doris Lessing

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Doris Lessing (2006)

Doris May Lessing CH OMG (muzvare Taylor ; Gumiguru 22, 1919 – 17 Mbudzi 2013) aive munyori wemabhuku chiri chizvara cheBritain achigara muZimbabwe (Rhodesian). Akazvarwa kuvabereki veBritish muIran, kwaakagara kusvika mugore ra1925. Mhuri yake yakabva yatamira kuSouthern Rhodesia (zvino yava Zimbabwe ), kwaakagara kusvikira atamira kuLondon, England muna 1949. Mabhuku ake anosanganisira The Grass Is Singing (1950), kutevedzana kwemanovhero mashanu akaungana anonzi Children of Violence (1952-1969), The Golden Notebook (1962), The Good Terrorist (1985), uye mabhuku mashanu akaungana anozivikanwa seCanopus muArgos. : Dura rezvinyorwa zvake (1979–1983).

Lessing akapiwa 2007 Nobel Prize in Literature . Mukupa mubairo, Swedish Academy yakatsanangura iye semunyori nembongorori yezviitiko zvevakadzi, uyo nekufungira, moto uye simba rekuona akaisa budiriro yakakamukana kuti iongororwe". Lessing aive munhu mukuru pane vese vakambogashira Mubairo weNobel muLiterature.

Muna 2001, Lessing akapiwa Mubairo waDavid Cohen wekubudirira kwehupenyu hwose mumabhuku eBritish . Muna 2008, The Times yakamupa mubairo wechishanu pane rondedzero ye "Vanyori makumi mashanu makuru eBritish kubvira 1945".

Hupenyu hwake[chinja | edit source]

Hupenyu nemavambo[chinja | edit source]

Lessing akaberekwa achinzi Doris May Tayler muKermanshah, Iran, pa22 Gumiguru 1919, kuna Captain Alfred Tayler naEmily Maude Tayler (muzvare McVeagh), vese vari veBritish. Baba vake, avo vakanga varasikirwa negumbo munguva yeHondo Yenyika Yokutanga (1914-1918), vakasangana neaizova mudzimai wavo, mukoti, paRoyal Free Hospital muLondon kwavakanga vachipora kubva pakudimburwa kwavo . Vaviri ava vakatamira kuIran, kuti Alfred atore basa remabharani kuImperial Bank of Persia .

Muna 1925, mhuri yakatamira kuSouthern Rhodesia (yava kunzi Zimbabwe) yainge yakapambwa neBritain uko vakatanga kunorima chibage nezvimwe zvirimwa munzvimbo yechuru chema acre (1,000 acres (400 ha) . yegwenzi rakatengwa naAlfred. Munharaunda yakaoma, mudzimai wake Emily akashuvira kutungamira mararamiro eEdwardian . Zvingadai zvaibvira kudai mhuri yacho yakanga yakapfuma; chokwadi, vakanga vasina mari uye purazi raiunza mari shoma.

Achiri musikana Doris akatanga kudzidza paDominican Convent High School, chikoro cheRoman Catholic chevasikana vese muguta guru reSouthern Rhodesia reSalisbury (yava kunzi Harare ). Gore rakatevera akanodzidza pachikoro cheGirls High School muSalisbury. Akasiya chikoro pazera remakore gumi nematatu uye akazvidzidzira kubva ipapo zvichienda mberi. Akabva pamba aine makore gumi nemashanu ndokushanda somureri wevana. Akatanga kuverenga zvinyorwa zvaakapihwa nemushandirwi wake nezvezvematongerwo enyika nemagariro evanhu uye akatanga kunyora panguva ino.

Muna 1937, Doris akatamira kuSalisbury kunoshanda semutyairi wenhare, uye munguva pfupi akaroorwa nemurume wake wekutanga, mushandi wehurumende, Frank Wisdom, waakaita naye vana vaviri (John, 1940-1992, naJean, akaberekwa muna 1941). Muchato wakapera muna 1943. Lessing akasiya imba yemhuri muna 1943, achisiya vana vaviri nababa vavo.

Kutamira kuLondon; maonero ezvematongerwo enyika[chinja | edit source]

Mushure mekurambana, kufarira kwaDoris kwakakweverwa kunharaunda yakapoteredza Left Book Club, sangano raakanga apinda gore rakapfuura. Apa ndipo paakasangana nemurume wake wechipiri wemunguva yemberi, Gottfried Lessing . Vakaroorana achangopinda muboka, uye vakaita mwana pamwechete (Peter, 1946-2013), vasati varambana mu1949. Haana kuroorwa zvakare. Lessing aivewo nerudo neRAF serviceman John Whitehorn (mukoma wemutori wenhau Katharine Whitehorn ), aigara kuSouthern Rhodesia, uyo akamunyorera tsamba makumi mapfumbamwe pakati pa1943 na1949.

Lessing akatamira kuLondon muna 1949 nemwanakomana wake mudiki, Peter, kuti aite basa rake rekunyora uye zvitendero zveGutsaruzhinji, asi akasiya vana vaviri vakuru nababa vavo Frank Wisdom muSouth Africa. Akazotaura kuti panguva iyoyo akaona pasina sarudzo: “Kwenguva refu ndainzwa kuti ndakanga ndaita chinhu chakashinga. Hapana chinhu chinorwadza kumukadzi akangwara kupfuura kupedza nguva isingaperi nevana vaduku. Ndakanzwa ndisiri munhu akanakisa kuvataurira. Ndingadai ndakaguma ndave chidhakwa kana kuti munhu akaora mwoyo saamai vangu. "

Pamwe nekurwisa kurwisa zvombo zvenyukireya, vaipikisa rusaruraganda, izvo zvakaita kuti varambidzwe kubva kuSouth Africa neRhodesia muna 1956 kwemakore akawanda. Mugore rimwe chetero, pashure pokupinda nechisimba kweSoviet muHungary, akasiya British Communist Party . Mumakore ekuma1980, apo Lessing aipikisa zviito zveSoviet muAfghanistan, akapa maonero ake pamusoro pechikadzi, communism uye ngano dzesainzi muhurukuro neThe New York Times .

Pana 21 Nyamavhuvhu 2015, faira yevhavha yevhoriyamu mashanu paLessing yakavakwa neBritish intelligence agencies, MI5 uye MI6, yakaitwa pachena uye yakaiswa muThe National Archives . Iro faira, iro rine magwaro akadzokororwa muzvikamu, rinoratidza kuti Lessing aive akatariswa nevasori veBritish kweanenge makore makumi maviri, kubva kutanga-1940s zvichienda mberi. Kushamwaridzana kwake neCommunism uye kuratidzira kwake kunopesana nerusarura zvinonzi ndizvo zvikonzero zvekufarira sevhisi yakavanzika muLessing.

Basa rekunyora mabhuku[chinja | edit source]

Pazera ramakore gumi namashanu, Lessing akatanga kutengesa nyaya dzake kumagazini. Bhuku rake rekutanga, The Grass Is Singing, rakabudiswa muna 1950. Basa rakaita kuti atarise pasi rose, The Golden Notebook, rakabudiswa muna 1962. Panguva yekufa kwake, akange aburitsa mabhuku anodarika makumi mashanu, mamwe ari muzita remanyepo.

Muna 1982 Lessing akanyora zvinyorwa zviviri pasi pezita remanyepo rekuti Jane Somers kuratidza kuomerwa kwavanotarisana nevanyori vatsva mukuyedza kuti basa ravo ridhindwe. Manovhero aya akarambwa nemuparidzi weLessing wekuUK asi akazogamuchirwa nemumwe muparidzi wechiRungu, Michael Joseph, uye kuUS naAlfred A. Knopf . The Diary of a Good Neighbor yakatsikiswa muBritain neUS muna 1983 uye Kana Old Aigona munyika mbiri idzi muna 1984, ese sezvakanyorwa naJane Somers. Muna 1984 mabhuku ese ari maviri akatsikiswazve munyika dzese dziri mbiri ( Viking Books inotsikiswa kuUS), panguva ino pasi pebutiro rimwe, aine zita The Diaries of Jane Somers: Diary yeMuvakidzani Akanaka uye Kana Mukuru Aigona, achinyora Doris Lessing semunyori.

Kuderera kwakaramba damehood (DBE) muna 1992 serukudzo rwakabatana neHumambo husipo; akanga aramba OBE muna 1977. Gare gare akabvuma kugadzwa seMufambidzani weKukudzwa pakupera kwa1999 kwe "basa rinozivikanwa renyika". Akaitwawo Mufambidzani weZvinyorwa neRoyal Society of Literature .

Muna 2007 Lessing akapiwa Mubairo weNobel muLiterature . Akagamuchira mubairo pazera ramakore 88 nemazuva 52, zvichimuita iye muhwindi mukurusa womubairo wemabhuku panguva yakapiwa mubairo uye wechitatu mukurusa wemubairo weNobel muboka ripi neripi (pashure paLeonid Hurwicz naRaymond Davis Jr. ). Aingovawo mukadzi wechigumi nerimwe kupihwa mubairo weNobel weLiterature neSweden Academy munhoroondo yayo yemakore zana nematanhatu. Muna 2017, makore gumi chete gare gare, menduru yake yeNobel yakatengeswa. Pakutanga menduru imwe chete yeNobel yemabhuku ndiyo yakanga yatengeswa paokisheni, yaAndré Gide muna 2016.

Lessing ainge hake aenda kunotenga zvekudya zvemumba pakasvika chiziviso cheNobel Prize. Achisvika pamba pakaungana vatori venhau akashevedzera, "Oh Christ!" “Ndakahwina mibairo yese muEurope, yese ine ropa, saka ndinofara kuihwina yese. Iko kubhururuka kwehumambo ." Akapa zita rake reNobel Lecture On Kusahwina Mubairo weNobel uye akarishandisa kukwevera pfungwa kune kusaenzana kwepasi rose kwemukana uye kuratidza kuti vanyori vengano vanogona kuve nechekuita mukugadzirisa kusaenzana ikoko. Lessing akanyora kuti "ndidzo fungidziro dzedu dzinotiumba, dzinotichengeta, dzinotigadzira - zvakanaka nekurwara. Inyaya dzedu dzinozotigadzira patsva, kana tabvarurwa, takuvadzwa, kana kuparadzwa." Hurukuro iyi yakazoburitswa muchidimbu chekutsvaga mari yevana vari panjodzi neHIV/AIDS . Mubvunzurudzo ya2008 yeBBC 's Front Row akataura kuti kuwedzera kufarira kwenhau mushure mekunge mubairo wamusiya asina nguva kana simba rekunyora. Bhuku rake rekupedzisira, Alfred naEmily, rakaonekwa muna 2008.

Kurwara nerufu[chinja | edit source]

Mukupera kwema1990 Lessing akarwara nekuoma mutezo, izvo zvakamumisa kufamba mumakore ake ekupedzisira. Akanga achiri kukwanisa kuenda kuimba yemitambo uye opera. Akatanga kuisa pfungwa dzake parufu, semuenzaniso achizvibvunza kana aizowana nguva yekupedza bhuku idzva. Akashaya musi wa17 Mbudzi 2013, ane makore makumi mapfumbamwe nemana, kumba kwake kuLondon, afa nevanakomana vake vaviri, asi akasiya mwanasikana wake, Jean, anogara kuSouth Africa .

Akarangarirwa nerusando rwerufu rwevanhu .

Fiction[chinja | edit source]

Idries Shah, uyo akaunza Lessing kuSufism

Fiction yaLessing inowanzokamurwa kuita zvikamu zvitatu zvakasiyana.

Munguva yechikamu chake chechiKomonisiti (1944–56) akanyora zvakanyanya nezvenyaya dzemagariro, dingindira raakadzokera muThe Good Terrorist (1985). Novhero yekutanga yaDoris Lessing inoti, Huswa Huri Kuimba, pamwe nenganonyorwa dzakazounganidzwa muAfrica Stories, dzakaitirwa kuSouthern Rhodesia (nhasi Zimbabwe) kwaaigara panguva iyoyo. 

Izvi zvakateverwa nechikamu chepfungwa kubva 1956 kusvika 1969, kusanganisira iyo Golden Notebook uye "Vana Vemhirizhonga" quartet. 

Yetatu kwakauya chikamu cheSufi, chakaongororwa mubasa rake rema70s, uye muCanopus muArgos kutevedzana kwesainzi ngano (kana sekuda kwaaida kuiisa "muchadenga fiction") zvinyorwa nemabhuku. 

Kutevedzana kwaLessing's Canopus kwakatambira kugamuchirwa kwakasiyana kubva kuvatsoropodzi vezvinyorwa vakanyanya . John Leonard akarumbidza bhuku rake ra1980 The Marriage Between Zones Three, Four and Five muThe New York Times, asi muna 1982 John Leonard akanyora achireva Kugadzirwa kweMumiriri we Planeti 8 kuti mumwe wevazhinji. zvivi izvo zana ramakore rechi20 richazvidavirira nokuda kwazvo ndezvokuti zvakaodza mwoyo Mai. Kuderera. . . Iye zvino anoparadzira achimiririra kusakosha kwedu mu cosmic razzmatazz," iyo Lessing akapindura kuti: "Chavasina kuziva ndechekuti mungano dzesainzi ndedzimwe dzengano dzakanakisa dzenguva yedu. Iniwo ndinoyemura rudzi rwekare rwesainzi ngano, seMumhanzi weRopa, naGreg Bear . Iye munyori mukuru." Akaenda ku1987 World Science Fiction Kokorodzano semunyori wayo Muenzi weKukudzwa. Pano akaita hurukuro yaakatsanangura bhuku rake redystopian Memoirs of a Survivor se "kuedza kwehupenyu hwehupenyu."

Canopus in Argos novel inopa yepamberi interstellar nzanga kuedza kukurumidzira shanduko yedzimwe nyika, kusanganisira Earth. Kushandisa pfungwa dzechiSufi, uko Lessing akaunzwa pakati pemakore ekuma1960 ne "shamwari yake yakanaka uye mudzidzisi" Idries Shah, nhevedzano yemanovhero inoshandisawo nzira yakafanana neyakashandiswa nekutanga 20th century mystic GI Gurdjieff in. basa rake All and Everything . Mabhuku ekutanga e "nzvimbo yemukati" manyepo seKupfupisa Kwekudzika muGehena (1971) uye Memoirs of a Survivor (1974) anobatanawo nedingindira iri. Fariro yaLessing yakanga yatendeukira kuSufism pashure pokusvika pakuziva kuti Marxism yaifuratira zvinhu zvomudzimu, ichimusiya aora mwoyo.

Chinyorwa chaLessing Golden Notebook inoonekwa seyechikadzi chechikadzi nedzimwe nyanzvi, asi zvakanyanya kwete nemunyori pachake, uyo akazonyora kuti dingindira raro rekuputsika kwepfungwa senzira yekurapa uye kuzvisunungura kubva mukunyengedzwa rakanga rakafuratirwa nevatsoropodzi. . Akadembawo kuti vatsoropodzi vakatadza kukoshesa chimiro chechinyorwa ichi. Akatsanangura muKufamba Mumumvuri kuti akafananidza Molly muchidimbu kune shamwari yake yakanaka Joan Rodker, mwanasikana wemudetembi wemazuva ano uye muparidzi John Rodker .

Lessing did not like being pigeon-holed as a feminist author. When asked why, she explained: Template:QuoteDoris Lessing Society yakazvipira kutsigira kudzidza kwehunyanzvi kwebasa raLessing. Chimiro chepamutemo cheSosaiti chakatanga muna January 1977, apo chinyorwa chokutanga cheDoris Lessing Newsletter chakabudiswa. Muna 2002 Bepanhau rakava bhuku rezvidzidzo rinonzi Doris Lessing Studies . Sosaiti inorongawo mapaneru paMasangano eModern Languages Association (MLA) yegore negore Kokorodzano uye yakaita misangano miviri yepasi rose muNew Orleans muna 2004 neLeeds muna 2007.

Lessing's Literary Archive inobatwa neHarry Ransom Humanities Research Center, paYunivhesiti yeTexas kuAustin . Mabhokisi makumi mana neshanu ezvinyorwa zveLessing paRansom Center ane zvinyorwa zvake zvese zviripo uye zvinyorwa zvekusvika muna 1999. Zvinyorwa zvekutanga zvemabhuku ekutanga aLessing zvinofungidzirwa kuti haapo nekuti haana kuchengeta rimwe remanyoro ake ekutanga. Iyo McFarlin Raibhurari paYunivhesiti yeTulsa inobata muunganidzwa mudiki.

Yunivhesiti yeEast Anglia 's British Archive for Contemporary Writing inochengetera dura renhoroondo yaDoris Lessing: muunganidzwa wakakura wetsamba dzehunyanzvi nedzemunhu, kusanganisira tsamba dzeWhitehorn, muunganidzwa wetsamba dzerudo kubva kuma1940, dzakanyorwa Lessing achiri kugara muZimbabwe ( ndokuzoti Southern Rhodesia). Iko kuunganidza kunosanganisirawo makore makumi mana emadhayari emunhu. Mamwe ematura anoramba akavharirwa panguva yekunyorwa kweLessing's official biography .