Dambudzo Marechera

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Dambudzo Marechera (4 Chikumi 1952 – 18 Nyamavhuvhu 1987) aive muZimbabwe munyori wenganonyorwa, munyori wenyaya pfupi, munyori wemitambo uye nyanduri. Basa rake pfupi rakaburitsa bhuku renyaya, zvinyorwa zviviri (rimwe rakaburitswa mushure mekufa kwake), bhuku remitambo, nhoroondo, nhetembo, uye muunganidzwa wenhetembo (zvakatsikiswa mushure mekufa kwake). Aizivikanwa zvikuru nekunyora kwake kwakanyanyisa, kutsanangura zvakadzama uye kuzviziva, izvo zvaionekwa semuganhu mutsva mumabhuku evanhu vatema, uye maitiro ake asina kujairika kumayunivhesiti kwaakadzingwa zvisinei nekugona muzvidzidzo zvake.

Huduku hwake nemavambo[chinja | edit source]

Marechera, zita rake rechitendero rainzi Charles William, akaberekerwa muVengere Township, kwaRusape, munyika yeRhodesia, naIsaac Marechera, mushandi wemochari, uye Masvotwa Venenzia Marechera, musikana webasa. Aive mwana wevabereki vechiShona vaibva kumabvazuva-pakati peRhodesia .

Mubhuku rake ra1978, The House of Hunger, uye mukubvunzurudzwa, Marechera anogara achinyepa kuti baba vake vakamhanyiswa ne”chitima chezana ramakore rechi20” kana kuti “vakadzoka kumba nebanga rakabairira kumusana” kana kuti “vakawanikwa muchitima. mumochari yechipatara mutumbi wake wakazara mabara". Nhoroondo dzisina kururama dzakadai dzinogona kunge dziri chikamu chemaitiro aMarechera ekudzokorora kunyange "chokwadi" chehupenyu hwake. Mutsvakurudzi wekuGermany Flora Veit-Wild akapa huremu hwakakura kunhoroondo yakapiwa Michael, pamusoro pechinhu chinoparadza muupenyu hwaMarechera mudiki. Michael anoratidza kuti Dambudzo akanga arohwa naamai vavo zvichireva kuti akanga atukwa neimwe nzira. Pakadzoka Marechera kubva kuLondon ndokuitwa munyori-mu-kugara paUniversity of Zimbabwe, amai vake nehanzvadzi dzake vakaedza kuuya kuzosangana naye asi akavaramba zvachose, achipomera amai vake mhosva yekuda kumuuraya. Zvakadaro, zvinozivikanwa kubva munhoroondo dzekare kuti Marechera haana kumboedza kuonana nemumwe wemhuri yake asati afa mugore ra1987.

Akakurira pakati porusaruraganda, urombo, uye chisimba. Akapinda St. Augustine's Mission, Penhalonga, uko akanetsana nevadzidzisi vake pamusoro pesirabhasi yedzidziso yevauyi kana kuti vachena, University of Rhodesia (yava kunzi University of Zimbabwe), kwaakadzingwa panguva yemhirizhonga yevadzidzi, uye New College, Oxford, kwaakange adzingwa. hunhu husina ushamwari uye kusafarira zvidzidzo zvakaita kuti adzingwe.

Budiriro yekudhindwa kwezvinyorwa zvake[chinja | edit source]

Bhuku rake rekutanga, Imba yeNzara (1978), yakauya nekukurumidza mushure menguva yake inoodza mwoyo zvakanyanya kuNew College, Oxford University . Pakati penyaya pfumbamwe dzirimo, nganonyorwa yemusoro wakareba inotsanangura kuomerwa nekukura kwemunyori muRhodesia yaitonga koloni nemanyorero anonyevenutsa manzwiro uye nemuromo. Rondedzero iyi inoratidzwa nekushanduka kwenguva nenzvimbo uye kusajeka kwekufungidzira uye chokwadi. Zvinoonekwa sechiratidzo chemaitiro matsva ekunyora kwemuAfrica kunoshamisa uye kwechiono, The House of Hunger yakapihwa mubairo we1979 Guardian Fiction . Marechera ndiye aive wekutanga uye ari ega muAfrica kuhwina mubairo uyu mumakore makumi matatu nematatu (wakatsiviwa muna 1999 neGuardian First Book Award ).

Black Sunlight (1980) yakafananidzwa nekunyora kwaJames Joyce naHenry Miller asi haina kuwana kubudirira kwakakosha kweImba yeNzara . Yakasununguka yakarongeka uye yakarongeka yekufungidzira, ine erudite digressions pane zvakasiyana-siyana zvinyorwa uye zvefilosofi zvekukurukurirana, bhuku rechipiri raMarechera rinotsvaga pfungwa yeanarchism sechinzvimbo chepfungwa. The Black Insider, yakabudiswa mushure mekufa muna 1990, yakaiswa muchikoro chekuvaka chivakwa chinopa hutiziro kune boka revanhu vane njere uye maartist kubva kuhondo isina kutaurwa kunze, iyo inozovaputira zvakare. Hurukuro yevatambi yakanangana nekuzivikanwa kwemuAfrica uye chimiro chehunyanzvi, protagonist achipokana kuti mufananidzo wemuAfrica unongova mumwe munhu ane masimba.

KuOxford University, Marechera akakunda mapurofesa ake semudzidzi akangwara asi ari mushishi asina hanya nekuomerera kuzvidzidzo zvekosi, achisarudza kuverenga chero chaimufadza. Aivewo nemukurumbira wekuve murume wechidiki anopopota asingazeze kurwisa vadzivisi vake panyama, kunyanya mumabhawa akapoteredza Oxford. Akatanga kuratidza hunhu husina kujeka, hungave hwakakonzerwa nekudhakwa zvakanyanya kana kuvhunduka kwetsika asi izvo zvakaonekwa nenyanzvi yepfungwa dzekuchikoro seschizophrenia . VaMarechera vakatyisidzira vamwe vanhu vachida kupisa yunivhesiti iyi. Aivawo nemukurumbira - kana kuti ane mukurumbira wakashata - nekuda kwekusava neruremekedzo kune chiremera chinobva papfungwa dzeukuru hwedzinza kana weboka. Pakuedza kupisa koreji iyi, VaMarechera vakapihwa nzira mbiri dzekuti vaende kunoongororwa pfungwa dzavo kana kuti kudzingwa; akasarudza vapashure, vachipomera kuti vaimubata chibharo mundangariro.

Panguva iyi hupenyu hwaMarechera hwakatanga kunetsa zvekuti akatombomuendesa kujeri reCardiff muna 1977 achibatwa nembanje pamwe nechisarudzo chekudzingwa kwake munyika. Akabatana nenharaunda dzisina midzi dzakatenderedza Oxford nedzimwe nzvimbo, achirara mudzimba dzeshamwari uye achinyora zvidimbu zvakasiyana-siyana zvekunyepedzera uye nhetembo pamabhenji epaki uye achigara achipambwa nematsotsi uye kutyisidzirwa nemapurisa nekuda kwekusaziva. Munguva iyi akagarawo kwemwedzi yakawanda munharaunda yezvitsuwa paTolmers Square pakati peLondon, uye zvinofungidzirwa kuti ndipo paakapedza kunyora bhuku rake rekutanga. Saka kubva muzviitiko zvakabatanidzwa paYunivhesiti yeRhodesia, Oxford uye vagrancy mumigwagwa yeEngland neWales kuti basa raMarechera rinonyanya kupembererwa, The House of Hunger, rakabuda.

Mushure mekunge The House of Hunger yakatorwa naJames Currey paHeinemann uye yakatsikiswa muAfrican Writers Series, Marechera akave chimwe chinhu chemukurumbira pakarepo muzvinyorwa zveEngland. Nekudaro, bhatani rake rekuzviparadza rakaratidza kusadzivisika uye aigara achikonzera kutsamwa. Pachidyo chemanheru chemubairo we1979 Guardian Fiction Prize kwaari weImba Yenzara, muhasha Marechera akatanga kuburitsa ndiro pachandelier. [1] [2] Zvakadaro, Leeds University neYunivhesiti yeSheffield yakamupa zvinzvimbo semunyori-mu-pekugara.

Zvinoita sekuti Marechera aifunga kuti sangano rinobudisa mabhuku remuBritish riri kumutorera zvinhu, saka akabva ambopinda muhofisi yeHeinemann achinokumbira mari yake. Kunyange zvakadaro, airarama muurombo hwakaipisisa uye utano hwake hwomuviri hwakatambura zvikuru nokuti akanga asingadyi zvakakwana uye ainwa zvakanyanyisa. Shamwari, vamwe vadzidzi vemuZimbabwe vakaita saMusaemura Zimunya (mudetembi ari oga), Rino Zhuwarara, Stanley Nyamfukudza (mumwewo munyori ane chipo) uye shamwari dzemazuva ose vose vaifungirwa naMarechera kuti vaiva nechekuita mumatambudziko ake akawanda kunyange pavakaita zvakanaka. kutenda. Mukupedzisira akarembera pamwe chete nevakaderera-uye-kunze vaigara pamipendero yezvinyorwa zvekunyora, vachipindira mumapato uye kazhinji kupinda mumatambudziko uye kanopfuura kamwe, vachiburitswa kunze naCurrey. Kuomesa zvinhu, zvizvarwa zvakawanda zvemuAfrica, kusanganisira vamwe vemuZimbabwe, havana kuona kuti Marechera akanga ari kubatsira basa rake kuburikidza nekutaura, kukanganisa mataurirwo echirungu emhando yepamusoro uye kuva nemapfekero akasiyana. Nekuda kwehunhu hwake hunovhiringidza, aigara achikandwa kunze kweAfrica Center, nzvimbo yekusangana yetsika muLondon's Covent Garden yeAfrica neAfrocentric vadzidzi nevadzidzi. Dzimwe nhoroondo dzinoti Marechera akaroora mukadzi wekuBritain asi hapana zvakawanda zvinozivikanwa nezvemubatanidzwa uyu.

Kudzoka kwake kuZimbabwe nemakore ekupedzisira[chinja | edit source]

Marechera akadzokera kuZimbabwe yakanga ichangozvitonga muna 1982 kuzobatsira mukutsikisa firimu reHouse of Hunger . Zvakadaro, akapesana nemukuru wemapurisa ndokusara ari muZimbabwe pakaenda vashandi vemo, zvichikonzera kushaya pekugara muHarare asati afa ikoko makore mashanu gare gare, kubva kuchirwere chemapapu chine chekuita neAIDS, ane makore 35.

Mindblast; kana kuti, The Definitive Buddy (1984) yakanyorwa gore mushure mekudzoka kwake kumusha uye ine mitambo mitatu, rondedzero yeprose, muunganidzwa wenhetembo, uye park-bhenji diary. Bhuku iri rinoshoropodza nyaya yekudisa zvinhu, kusashivirira, kutora mukana, nehuwori hweZimbabwe mushure mekusununguka, richiwedzera gakava rezvematongerwo enyika kunze kwenyaya yekuda nyika kuti rigamuchire kuvandudzwa kwechokwadi kwemagariro evanhu. Mubatanidzwa wekunyatsozviongorora, kutsoropodza zvine hungwaru, uye pachena, chimiro chekuyedza chakafadza chizvarwa chechidiki cheZimbabwe, icho chainzi chizvarwa chepfungwa, avo vaitsvaga nzira itsva dzekuona nadzo basa ravo munyika yainge ichiri kubuda.

Nhetembo dzaMarechera dzakatsikiswa afa pasi pemusoro wekuti Cemetery of Mind (1992). Kufanana nenyaya dzake, nhetembo dzake dzinoratidza pesvedzero yevanyori vemazuva ano kubva kuna Arthur Rimbaud uye TS Eliot kuenda kuna Allen Ginsberg naChristopher Okigbo, uye anosimbisa proclivity yake yekunzwisisa kutsoropodza kwevanhu, kuzvidzora zvakanyanya, uye kushinga kwekutaura.

Mubvunzurudzo, Marechera akati nezvake: “Ndinofunga kuti ndini doppelganger uyo, kusvika ndabuda, mabhuku emuAfrica anga asati asangana. Iyi ndiyo ongororo chaiyo yebasa raMarechera rekuvhundutsa muverengi kuti azvitarise patsva nemaziso emumwe. Kuzvisarudzira kwake, kuedza kwezvinyorwa, uye iconoclasm inovimbisa kuti basa rake rinopikisa tsanangudzo dzakatetepa; inogara ichichinja uye ichiyambuka miganhu.

Mibairo[chinja | edit source]

  • 1979 Guardian Fiction Prize

Nhaka[chinja | edit source]

Marechera anoramba ari chibodzwa chetsika nemagariro emuZimbabwe pane zvekunyora. Kubva pakufa kwake, vanyori vechidiki vakawanda nevakawanda vaaishanda navo vakanyora nhoroondo dzakawanda uye nhoroondo dzeupenyu hwake dzinotsanangura nezveupenyu hwake nemabasa ake ainetsekana. Mumakore ekuma1990, vakakurumbira vaiva vatorwa, kunyanya nyanzvi yeGermany Flora Veit-Wild, akanyora zvose biography uye bhuku rehupenyu nemabasa aMarechera. Chinosuwa naWild inyaya yekuti Marechera aipepeta hupenyu hwake paaifamba. Wild anoita seanotora zvizhinji zvaakawana kwaMarechera sechokwadi. Muchinyorwa chaive mumagazini yeWasafiri muna Kurume 2012, Wild akapindura kumubvunzo wekuti sei “asina kunyora bhaogirafi yaDambudzo Marechera chaiyo” achiti: “Mhinduro yangu yaive yekuti ndaisada kuputsa hunhu hwake hwakasiyana-siyana kuita chiremera chimwe chete. rondedzero asi regai manzwi akasiyana azvitaurire ega. Asi ichi hachisi chokwadi chese. Ndakatadza kunyora nhoroondo yeupenyu hwake nekuti hupenyu hwangu pachangu hwaive hwakabatikana zvakanyanya neyake." Akabva arondedzera muudzame kubatanidzwa kwake kwomunhu oga naye kwenhambo yemwedzi 18.

Zvinyorwa[chinja | edit source]

  • 1978: Imba Yenzara
  • 1980: Black Sunlight
  • 1984: Mindblast kana The Definitive Buddy
  • 1992: The Black Insider
  • 1992: Makuva Epfungwa
  • 1994: Scrapiron Blues
  1. "Profile: Dambudzo Marechera", Kalamu ya Salaam's information blog, Neo-Griot.
  2. Drew Johnson: "The Last Book I Loved, The House of Hunger", The Rumpus, 18 November 2009