Kuchekwa kwenhengo yemunhukadzi

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Kuchekwa kwenhengo yemunhukadzi
photograph
Chikwangwani chemumugwagwa pedyo neKapchorwa, Uganda, kunorambidzwa kuchecheudza vakadzi, asi zvichiri kuitwa nevanhu vechiPokot, Sabiny nevechiTepeth.[1]
Tsanangudzo Kubvisa chidimbu kana zvese zvekunze zvenhengo yekubereka nayo yemunhukadzi asi zvisiri kuitirwa kurapa[2]
Nzvimbo kwazvinoitwa Zvakanyanya munyika 27 dzemusub-Saharan nechamhembe kwakadziva kumabvazuva kweAfrica, uyewo kuYemen nekuIraqi Kurdistan[3]
Nhamba vanhu 133 miriyoni munyika dzacho[4]
Zera pazvinoitwa Mavhiki mwana achangozvarwa kusvika pakuyaruka kana pashure pacho[5]

'Kuchekwa kwenhengo yemunhukadzi ('), kunozivikanwawo sekucheka uye kuchecheudza vakadzi, kunotsanangurwa neWorld Health Organization (WHO) se"zvese zvinoitwa zvinosanganisira kubvisa zvese zvekunze zvenhengo yekubereka nayo yemunhukadzi kana kukuvadzwa kwechero nhengo dzekubereka nadzo dzemunhukadzi asi zvisiri kuitirwa kurapa."[2] Izvi zvinoitwa setsika nemapoka emarudzi enyika 27 dziri musub-Sahara uye kuchamhembe kwakadziva kumabvazuva kweAfrica, asi tsika yacho yakati dererei muAsia, Middle East nemuvanhu vanobva kune dzimwe nyika.[6] Tsika yacho inoitwa panguva dzakasiyana-siyana dzinobvira pamazuva munhu achangoberekwa kusvika ayaruka; muhafu yenyika dzinozivikanwa kuti dzine vanhu vangani, vakawanda vevasikana vanochekwa vasati vasvika makore mashanu.[7]

Tsika iyi inosanganisira chimwe chete kana zvinodarika chezvinotevera, uye zvinosiyana-siyana neboka rerudzi riri kuiita. Zvinosanganisira kubvisa chidimbu kana gongo rese uye ganda repamusoro pegongo; gongo rese kana chidimbu charo uye matinji; uye kana vari vaya vanonyanyisa vacho (vanobvisa zvachose) vachibvisa chidimbu kana zvese zvepakati uye zvekunze ganda rakatenderedza sikarudzi uye kuvhara sikarudzi. Pamaitiro apedzisira kutaurwa, ayo anodaidzwa neWHO kuti Type III yekuchekwa kwevanhukadzi, panosiiwa kamwena kadiki keweti neropa rekuenda kumwedzi, uye sikarudzi inozovhurirwa bonde uye kuzvara.[8] Matambudziko eutano anoparirwa nemaitiro aya anotsamira pakuti zvii zvaitwa asi anogona kusanganisira utachiona hunoramba huchidzoka, kurwadziwa kweupenyu hwese, mabundu anonzi macyst, kutadza kuita nhumbu, matambudziko pakuzvara uye kubuda ropa kwakaipisisa.[9]

Tsika iyi inobata vakadzi zvisiri izvo, ndeyekuedza kuva nechisimba chisiri icho paupenyu hwemunhukadzi, pakuchena uye pakutaridzika kwavo. Inokurudzirwa uye inoitwa nevanhukadzi, vanenge vachifungidzira kuti inounza rukudzo pavakadzi, uye vanenge vachityira kuti kana vakatadza kuiita pavanasikana vavo kana pavazukurusikana zvichaita kuti vasikana vacho vasaremekedzwe nevamwe.[10] Vakadzi uye vasikana vanodarika 130 miriyoni vakachekwa nhengo dzekubereka nadzo munyika 29 munonyanya kuitwa tsika iyi.[4] Vanodarika mamiriyoni masere vakabviswa zvachose nhengo dzekunze, izvo zvinonyanya kuitwa muDjibouti, Eritrea, Somalia nemuSudan.[11]

Kucheka nhengo dzekubereka nadzo kwava kuonekwa sekutyorwa kwemutemo munyika dzakawanda, asi hazvitariswi zvakasimba kana mitemo yacho iri kutevedzwa.[12] Kubvira kuma 1970 zvave zvichiedzwa pasi rose kukurudzira vanhu kuti vasiye tsika iyi, uye muna 2012 United Nations General Assembly, yakatema kuti kuchecheudza vanhukadzi kutyora kodzero dzavo.[13] Kupikisa tsika iyi kunoshorwawo nevamwe, kunyanya vaya vanoita zvekudzidza nezvetsika nemagariro zvemarudzi evanhu. Eric Silverman akanyora kuti kuchekwa kwenhengo dzekubereka dzevanhukadzi inyaya inonyanya kutaurwa nevanodzidza nezvetsika nemagariro zvemarudzi evanhu, uye pane zvakaoma zvinobvunzika nezvekuremekedza tsika nemagariro sezvazviri, kusapindira uye kuziva kuti vanhu vese panyika vane kodzero dzavo.[14]

Kunowanika mamwe mashoko[chinja | edit source]

  1. Masinde, Andrew. "FGM: Despite the ban, the monster still rears its ugly head in Uganda", New Vision, Uganda, 5 February 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Classification of female genital mutilation", World Health Organization, 2013 (hereafter WHO 2013).
  3. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Overview and Exploration of the Dynamics of Change", United Nations Children's Fund, July 2013 (hereafter UNICEF 2013), p. 2.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: What Might the Future Hold?, New York: UNICEF, 22 July 2014 (hereafter UNICEF 2014), p. 3/6: "If nothing is done, the number of girls and women affected will grow from 133 million today to 325 million in 2050." Also see p. 6/6:

    "Data sources: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and other nationally representative surveys, 1997–2013. Population data are from: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2012 revision, CD-ROM edition, United Nations, New York, 2013.

    "Notes: Data presented in this brochure cover the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGM/C is concentrated and for which nationally representative data are available."

  5. UNICEF 2013, p. 50.
  6. UNICEF 2013, p. 2
  7. UNICEF 2013, pp. 47, 50, 183.
  8. WHO 2013; WHO 2008, p. 4
  9. Abdulcadira, Jasmine; Margairaz, C.; Boulvain, M; Irion, O. "Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting", Swiss Medical Weekly, 6(14), January 2011 (review).
  10. UNICEF 2013, p. 15: "There is a social obligation to conform to the practice and a widespread belief that if they [families] do not, they are likely to pay a price that could include social exclusion, criticism, ridicule, stigma or the inability to find their daughters suitable marriage partners."

    Nahid F. Toubia, Eiman Hussein Sharief, "Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?", International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 82(3), September 2003, pp. 251–261: "One of the great achievements of the past decade in the field of FGM is the shift in emphasis from the concern over the harmful physical effects it causes to understanding this act as a social phenomenon resulting from a gender definition of women's roles, in particular their sexual and reproductive roles. This shift in emphasis has helped redefine the issues from a clinical disease model (hence the terminology of eradication prevalent in the literature) to a problem resulting from the use of culture to protect social dominance over women's bodies by the patriarchal hierarchy. Understanding the operative mechanisms of patriarchal dominance must also include understanding how women, particularly older married women, are important keepers of that social hegemony." Template:PMID Template:Doi

  11. P. Stanley Yoder, Shane Khan, "Numbers of women circumcised in Africa: The Production of a Total", USAID, DHS Working Papers, No. 39, March 2008, pp. 13–14: "Infibulation is practiced largely in countries located in northeastern Africa: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. Survey data are available for Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Sudan alone accounts for about 3.5 million of the women. ... [T]he estimate of the total number of women infibulated in [Djibouti, Somalia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon and Tanzania, for women 15–49 years old] comes to 8,245,449, or just over eight million women." Also see Appendix B, Table 2 ("Types of FGC"), p. 19.

    UNICEF 2013, p. 182, identifies "sewn closed" as most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia for the 15–49 age group (a survey in 2000 in Sudan was not included in the figures), and for the daughters of that age group it is most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Niger and Somalia. See UNICEF statistical profiles: Djibouti (December 2013), Eritrea (July 2014), Somalia (December 2013).

    Also see Gerry Mackie, "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account", American Sociological Review, 61(6), December 1996 (pp. 999–1017), p. 1002: "Infibulation, the harshest practice, occurs contiguously in Egyptian Nubia, the Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia, also known as Islamic Northeast Africa."

  12. For countries in which it is outlawed or restricted, UNICEF 2013, p. 8; for enforcement, UNFPA–UNICEF 2012, p. 48.
  13. "67/146. Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilation", United Nations General Assembly, adopted 20 December 2012.

    Emma Bonino, "Banning Female Genital Mutilation", The New York Times, 19 December 2012.

  14. Eric K. Silverman, "Anthropology and Circumcision", Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 2004 (pp. 419–445), pp. 420, 427.