Kubvisa nhumbu

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Kubvisa nhumbu
Tsanangudzo uye kumwe kunowanika mashoko
ICD/CIM-10 O04 O04
ICD/CIM-9 779.6 779.6
DiseasesDB 4153
MedlinePlus 002912

Kubvisa nhumbu ndiko kugumiswa kwenhumbu zvichiparirwa nekuita zvekubvisa kana kubudiswa mudumbu kwemwana kana kasvava nguva isati yakwana yekuti anogona kuzviraramira ari kunze kwedumbu. Nhumbu inogona kubvisika yega uye izvi zvinowanzonzi kupfupfudzika. Munhu anoita izvi achida hake anonzi abvisa nhumbu. Mashoko ekuti kubvisa nhumbu anonyanya kureva kubvisa nhumbu munhu achida hake. Izvi zvinogona kuitwawo panguva yekuti mwana anogona kuzviraramira ari kunze kwedumbu kana kuti "kubvisa nhumbu inenge yakura".[1]

Vezvokurapa vanhasi vanoshandisa mishonga kana oparesheni senzira dzekubvisa nadzo nhumbu. Mishonga miviri inoti mifepristone uye prostaglandin inonyatsoshanda sezvinongoita oparesheni padanho rekutanga.[2][3] Nepo mishonga ichigona kushandiswa zvakare padanho rechipiri,[4] oparesheni inzira isina zvakawanda zvainozokonzeresa.[3] Nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo pamuviri, kusanganisira mapiritsi uye koiri rinopfekerwa muchibereko zvinogona kutotanga kushandiswa panongobviswa nhumbu.[3] Zvinonzi kubvisa nhumbu munyika dzakabudirira kwava nenguva yakareba kuchizivikanwa semarapiro asina ngozi kana zvichitenderwa nemutemo wemunharaunda.[5][6] Nhumbu dzinenge dzabviswa zvakanaka hadzipariri kurwara pfungwa kana mamwe matambudziko pamunhu.[7] Sangano reWorld Health Organization rinokurudzira kuti mabvisiro aya asina ngozi uye epamutemo awaniswe vakadzi vese pasi rese.[8] Zvisinei, gore negore kubvisa nhumbu zvine ngozi kunoparira nzufu 47 000 kufa kwevakadzi vane nhumbu[7] uye 5 miriyoni vanoiswa muchipatara.[9]

Zvinofungidzirwa kuti nhumbu dzinokwana 44 miriyoni dzinobviswa gore negore pasi rose, uye dzinoda kusvika hafu dzacho dzinobviswa zvine ngozi.[10] Uwandu hwenhumbu dzinobviswa hauna kunyanya kuchinja pakati pa2003 na2008,[10] zvichitevera makumi emakore huchidzika nechikonzero chekudzidziswa zvakawedzerwa kwevanhu nezvekuronga mhuri uye nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri.[11] Template:As of Kubvira 2008, 40 muzana yevakadzi pasi rese vakava nemikana yekubvisa nhumbu zviri pamutemo "vasingabvunzwi chikonzero".[12] Zvisinei, paurefu hwenguva yenhumbu, pane nguva yekuti zvinenge zvisisaiti kuti nhumbu yacho ibviswe.[12]

Kubvisa nhumbu kune nhoroondo yakareba. Pane nzira dzakasiyana-siyana dzaishandiswa, kusanganisira mishonga yemakwenzi, maturusi akapinza, kukuvara zvakaipisisa, uyewo nzira dzechinyakare zvakabvira kare kare.[13] Mitemo ine chekuita nekubvisa nhumbu, yekuti dzinobviswa kangani, neyetsika uye manamatiro zvinosiyana-siyana pasi rese. Mumwe macho, kubvisa nhumbu kuri pamutemo zvichitsamira pane zvinenge zvaikonzeresa, sezvakaita makunakuna, kubatwa chibharo, matambudziko ane chekuita nemwana ari mudumbu, mamiriro ezvinhu emari nemagariro, uye kuva pangozi kweutano hwamai.[14] Munzvimbo dzakawanda dzepasi pane kusawirirana kweruzhinji nezvetsika, kururama, uye kuva pamutemo kwekubvisa nhumbu. Vaya vanopikisa kubvisa nhumbu vanowanzotaura kuti kasvava kana mwana munhu ane kodzero yekurarama saka vakawanda vanoti kubvisa nhumbu kuponda.[15][16] Vaya vanotsigira kodzero dzekubvisa nhumbu vanosimbisa kodzero yemukadzi yekusarudza panyaya dzine chekuita nemuviri wake[17] uye vanosimbisawo kodzero dzevanhu vese.[8]

Kunowanika mamwe mashoko[chinja | edit source]

  1. Grimes, DA; Stuart, G (2010). "Abortion jabberwocky: the need for better terminology". Contraception 81 (2): 93–6. PMID 20103443. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.09.005. 
  2. Kulier, R; Kapp, N; Gülmezoglu, AM; Hofmeyr, GJ; Cheng, L; Campana, A (Nov 9, 2011). "Medical methods for first trimester abortion.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (11): CD002855. PMID 22071804. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kapp, N; Whyte, P; Tang, J; Jackson, E; Brahmi, D (Sep 2013). "A review of evidence for safe abortion care.". Contraception 88 (3): 350–63. PMID 23261233. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.10.027. 
  4. Wildschut, H; Both, MI; Medema, S; Thomee, E; Wildhagen, MF; Kapp, N (Jan 19, 2011). "Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD005216. PMID 21249669. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005216.pub2. 
  5. Grimes, D. A.; Benson, J.; Singh, S.; Romero, M.; Ganatra, B.; Okonofua, F. E.; Shah, I. H. (2006). "Unsafe abortion: The preventable pandemic" (PDF). The Lancet 368 (9550): 1908–1919. PMID 17126724. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69481-6. 
  6. Raymond, EG; Grossman, D; Weaver, MA; Toti, S; Winikoff, B (Nov 2014). "Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.". Contraception 90 (5): 476–479. PMID 25152259. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lohr, P. A.; Fjerstad, M.; Desilva, U.; Lyus, R. (2014). "Abortion". BMJ 348: f7553. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7553. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Organization, World Health (2012). Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems (2nd ed. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 8. ISBN 9789241548434. 
  9. Shah, I.; Ahman, E. (December 2009). "Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges" (PDF). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 31 (12): 1149–58. PMID 20085681. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.; Shah, I. H.; Åhman, E.; Henshaw, S. K.; Bankole, A. (2012). "Induced abortion: Incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008" (PDF). The Lancet 379 (9816): 625–632. PMID 22264435. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8. 
  11. Sedgh G, Henshaw SK, Singh S, Bankole A, Drescher J (September 2007). "Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends". Int Fam Plan Perspect 33 (3): 106–116. PMID 17938093. doi:10.1363/ifpp.33.106.07. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Culwell KR, Vekemans M, de Silva U, Hurwitz M (July 2010). "Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: Contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 110: S13–16. PMID 20451196. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.003. 
  13. Joffe, Carole (2009). "1. Abortion and medicine: A sociopolitical history" (PDF). In MPaul, ES Lichtenberg, L Borgatta, DA Grimes, PG Stubblefield, MD Creinin. Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy (1st ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4443-1293-5. Archived from the original on 21 October 2011. 
  14. Boland, R.; Katzive, L. (2008). "Developments in Laws on Induced Abortion: 1998–2007". International Family Planning Perspectives 34 (3): 110–120. PMID 18957353. doi:10.1363/ifpp.34.110.08. 
  15. Pastor Mark Driscoll (18 October 2013). "What do 55 million people have in common?". Fox News. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  16. Dale Hansen (18 March 2014). "Abortion: Murder, or Medical Procedure?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  17. Sifris, Ronli Noa (2013). Reproductive Freedom, Torture and International Human Rights Challenging the Masculinisation of Torture.. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 3. ISBN 9781135115227.