Nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri

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Template:Infobox interventions Nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri, dzinozivikanwawo pachirungu secontraception kana fertility control, inzira kana zvinhu zvinoshandiswa kuti munhu asaite nhumbu.[1] Kuronga, kuita kuti vanhu vawaniswe, uye kushandisa zvekudzivirira nazvo pakubata pamuviri ndiko kunonzi kuronga mhuri.[2][3] Nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri dzakabvira kare kare dzichishandiswa, asi nzira dzinonyatsoshanda uye dzisina ngozi dzakazotanga kuwanika kuma1900.[4] Dzimwe tsika hadzipi vese vese kana kuti hadzitokurudziri kudzivirira pamuviri nekuti izvi hazvienderani netsika dzavo, manamatiro, kana zvematongerwe enyika zvavo.[4]

Nzira dzinonyanya kushanda ndidzo dzinoti sterilization inoitwa kuburikidza nekuchekwa kana vari varume uye kusungwa kwemachubhu echibereko kana vari vakadzi, chigadzirwa chinoiswa muchibereko, uye zvigadzirwa zvekudzivirira kubata pamuviri zvinoiswa mumuviri. Izvi zvinozoteverwa nenzira dzinoshandisa mahomoni kusanganisira mapiritsi ekuita zvekunwa, zvinamirwa, marin'i anoiswa musikarudzi, uye majekiseni. Nzira dzisinganyanyi kushanda dzinosanganisira zvinodzivirira kuti urume nezai zvisabatane zvakaita semakondomu, madiaphragm uye zvipanji zvinodzivirira pamuviri uye nzira dzekuziva nadzo kana iri nguva yekuti mukadzi abate pamuviri. Nzira dziri kwekupedzisira pakushanda ndidzo dzinoti mishonga inouraya urume uye kubudisa nhengo yemurume kunoitwa murume asati abudisa urume. Nepo sterilization ichishanda chaizvo, kakawanda haibvisike; dzimwe nzira dzese dzinogona kubvisika, uye dzakawanda dzacho dzinotoguma kushanda ipapo ipapo.[5] Bonde rakadzivirirwa, rakadai sekushandisa kondomu rechirume kana makondomu evakadzi, zvinogona kubatsira kudzivirira utachiona hunotapuriranwa pabonde.[6][7] Nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo pamuviri pashure pebonde dzinogona kudzivirira nhumbu kwemazuva pashure pebonde risina kudzivirirwa.[8] Vamwe vanoona kusaita zvepabonde senzira yekudzivirira nayo pamuviri, asi kudzidzisa vanhu kusaita zvepabonde chete zvinogona kuwedzera nhumbu dzevachiri kuyaruka kana kudzidzisa kwacho kukaitwa pasinawo kudzidziswa nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo pamuviri, zvichibva pakuti vachiri kuyaruka vanogona kutadza kuteerera zvavari kudzidziswa.[9][10]

Nezvenyaya yevachiri kuyaruka, nhumbu dzacho dzine mikana yakakura yekusafamba zvakanaka. Dzidzo yezvebonde inotaura zvese uye kuwanika kwenzira dzekudzivirira nadzo pamuviri zvinoderedza uwandu hwenhumbu dzisina kurongwa dzevachiri kuyaruka.[11][12] Nepo nzira dzese dzekudzivirira nadzo pamuviri dzichigona kushandiswa nevadiki,[13] nzira dzenguva yakareba asi dzinobvisika dzekudzivirira nadzo pamuviri sezvakaita zvigadzirwa zvinoiswa mumuviri, kana marin'i anoiswa musikarudzi inzira dzinonyanya kubatsira kuderedza uwandu hwenhumbu dzevachiri kuyaruka.[12] Pashure pekuzvara mwana, mukadzi anenge asiri kuyamwisa chete chete, anogona kubata zvakare pamuviri pashure pemavhiki 4 kusvika ku6. Dzimwe nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo pamuviri dzinogona kutotanga kushandiswa pashure chaipo pekuzvara mwana, nepo dzimwe dzichida kuti pambomirwa kwenguva inosvika mwedzi 6. Kana vari vakadzi vari kuyamwisa, nzira dzemahomoni eprogestin chete ndidzo dzinonyanya kukurudzirwa pane mapiritsi emubatanidzwa. Kana vari vakadzi vanenge vaguma kubereka, zvinokurudzirwa kuti varambe vachishandisa nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri kwegore pashure pemwedzi wavanenge vaguma kuenda kumwedzi.[13]

Munyika dzichiri kubudirira vakadzi vanokwana 222 miriyoni pasi rese avo vasiri kuda kubata pamuviri havasi kushandisa nzira dzemazuva ano dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri.[14][15] Munyika dzichiri kubudirira, kushandiswa kwenzira dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri kuri kuderedza nzufu dzinoitika pakuzvitakura kwemadzimai ne40% (nzufu dzinenge 270 000 dzakadziviswa muna 2008) uye dzinogona kudzivirirwa kusvika pa70% kana vanhu vakawaniswa nzira dzese dzavanoda dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri.[16][17] Vakadzi vakura vanogona kuwedzera mikana yekuzvara vana zvakanaka uye yekuti vana vavo vararame kana vakarebesa nguva yepakati penhumbu dzavo vachishandisa nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri.[16] Munyika dzichiri kubudirira, mari inotambirwa nevakadzi, zvinhu, uremu, uye dzidzo yevana vavo pamwe chete neutano zvinogona kuwedzera kana pakawaniswa nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo pamuviri.[18] Nzira dzekudzivirira nadzo kubata pamuviri dzinowedzeresa kubudirira mune zveupfumi nekuti panenge pava nevana vashoma vekutarisira, uye panova nevakadzi vakawanda vari muchikwata chevashandi, uye zvinhu zvekurarama nazvo hazviwandirwi.[18][19]

Kunowanika mamwe mashoko[chinja | edit source]

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