Donje

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Donje (cotton in English) idzinde rinorimwa richishandiswa kugadzira shinda dzinorukiswa machira. Mhodzi dzacho dzinoshandiswa kugadzira mafuta; chikafu chezvipfuyo nezvimwewo.

Donje  yakatenderedza mhodzi dzedonje zvirimwa zvegenus Gossypium mumhuri yemallow Malvaceae. Iyo fiber inenge yakachena cellulose, uye inogona kuva nezvikamu zviduku zvewakisi, mafuta, pectins, uye mvura. Pasi pemamiriro echisikigo, mabhoti ekotoni achawedzera kupararira kwembeu.

Chirimwa ichi chigwenzi chinowanikwa kunzvimbo dzinopisa uye dzinopisa pasi rose, kusanganisira America, Africa, Egypt neIndia. Mhando huru yedonje yemusango inowanikwa kuMexico, ichiteverwa neAustralia neAfrica. Donje yaive yakazvimiririra mudzimba muNyika Yekare uye Itsva.

Iyo inowanzorukwa kuita shinda kana shinda uye inoshandiswa kugadzira jira rakapfava, rinofema, uye rinogara. Kushandiswa kwekotoni yemucheka kunozivikanwa kusvika kune prehistoric nguva; Zvimedu zvemucheka wedonje zvechishanu chemireniyamu BC zvakawanikwa muIndus Valley budiriro, pamwe chete nemachira akasaririra ekare 6000 BC muPeru. Kunyange zvazvo yakarimwa kubva kare, ndiko kugadzirwa kwekotoni gin iyo yakaderedza mutengo wekugadzira iyo yakaita kuti ishandiswe zvakanyanya, uye ndiyo inonyanya kushandiswa jira refiber jira mune zvipfeko nhasi.

Parizvino fungidziro yekugadzirwa kwepasi rose inosvika matani 25 miriyoni kana 110 miriyoni mabhero pagore, inoverengera 2.5% yevhu rinorimwa pasi rose. India ndiyo inogadzira donje guru pasi rose. United States ndiyo yave iri mutengesi mukuru kune dzimwe nyika kwemakore akawanda.

Kurima[chinja | edit source]

Kurima donje kunobudirira kunoda nguva refu isina chando, kupenya kwezuva kwakawanda, uye kunaya kwemvura kuri pakati nepakati, kazhinji kubva pa60 kusvika 120 cm (24 kusvika 47 in)[inodiwa]. Ivhu rinowanzoda kurema zvakaringana, kunyangwe huwandu hwekudya husingade kusiyana. Kazhinji, mamiriro ezvinhu aya anosangana munguva yekuoma uye subtropics muNorthern uye Southern hemispheres, asi ruzhinji rwekotoni inorimwa nhasi inorimwa munzvimbo dzine mvura shoma inogamuchira mvura kubva pakudiridza. Kugadzirwa kwechirimwa kwegore kunowanzotanga mushure mekukohwa kwematsutso apfuura. Donje hariperi asi rinorimwa segore rinobatsira kurwisa tumbuyu. Nguva yekudyara muchirimo muNorthern hemisphere inosiyana kubva kutanga kwaFebruary kusvika kutanga kwaJune. Nzvimbo yeUnited States inozivikanwa seSouth Plains ndiyo nzvimbo yakakura kwazvo inorimwa donje pasi rose. Nepo donje renyika yakaoma (risingadiridzirwe) rinorimwa zvakanaka mudunhu rino, goho rinogara riripo rinogadzirwa chete nekuvimba zvakanyanya nemvura yekudiridzira inotorwa kubva muAquifer yeOgallala. Sezvo donje richiita munyu nekusanaya kwemvura, izvi zvinoita kuti rive chirimwa chinokwezva kunzvimbo dzakaoma uye dzisinganayi mvura. Sezvo zviwanikwa zvemvura zviri kuramba zvichishomeka pasi rose, hupfumi hunovimba nahwo hunotarisana nematambudziko nemakakatanwa, pamwe nematambudziko angangove ezvakatipoteredza. Semuenzaniso, kurima zvirimwa zvisina kufanira uye kudiridza kwakashandura zvikamu zveUzbekistan kuva magwenga, uko donje rinotengeswa kunze kwenyika zvakanyanya. Mumazuva eSoviet Union, Gungwa reAral raishandiswa kudiridza, zvikurukuru nokuda kwedonje, uye iye zvino kugadzirwa kwemunyu kwakapararira.

Cotton inogonawo kukura kuva nemavara kunze kweyero-chena-yakajairika yemazuva ano fiber fiber. Ikotoni ine mavara echisikigo inogona kuuya mune zvitsvuku, magirini, uye mashoma shades ebrown.

Shandisa[chinja | edit source]

Donje inoshandiswa kugadzira huwandu hwezvigadzirwa zvemachira. Izvi zvinosanganisira terrycloth yematauro ekugezesa anonwisa zvakanyanya nenguo; denim yebhuruu jeans; cambric, inonyanya kushandiswa mukugadzira shati yebhuruu yekushanda (kubva kwatinowana izwi rokuti "blue-collar"); uye corduroy, seersucker, uye donje twill. Masokisi, zvipfeko zvemukati, uye maT-shirts mazhinji anogadzirwa nedonje. Mibhedha kazhinji inogadzirwa nedonje. Chinhu chinodiwa pamashiti sezvo chiri hypoallergenic, chiri nyore kuchengetedza uye chisingarwadzise ganda. Donje rinoshandiswawo kugadzira shinda inoshandiswa mukurotjha nekuruka. Micheka zvakare inogona kugadzirwa kubva kudonje yakadzokororwa kana kudzoreredzwa iyo neimwe nzira yaizoraswa panguva yekuruka, kuruka, kana kucheka. Nepo machira akawanda achigadzirwa chose nedonje, zvimwe zvinhu zvinosanganisa donje nemamwe mafiibhi, anosanganisira rayon netambo dzekugadzira dzakadai sepolyester. Inogona kushandiswa mumachira akarukwa kana akarukwa, sezvo achigona kusanganiswa ne elastine kugadzira tambo yakarukwa yemachira akarukwa, uye zvipfeko zvakaita sejeans. Donje inogona kusanganiswa zvakare nerineni inogadzira machira ane mabhenefiti ezvese zvinhu. Misanganiswa yerineni-donje inoshingirira kuunyana uye inochengetedza kupisa zvakanyanya kupfuura yerineni chete, uye yakatetepa, yakasimba uye yakareruka kupfuura donje chete.

Pamusoro peindasitiri yemachira, donje rinoshandiswa mumambure ekuredza, mafirita ekofi, matende, kugadzira zvinoputika (ona nitrocellulose), bepa rekotoni, uye mukubatanidza mabhuku. Mapombi emoto akambogadzirwa nedonje.

Mitauro yeBantu[chinja | edit source]