Chimbwamupengo

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Chimbwamupengo
Tsanangudzo uye kumwe kunowanika mashoko
Imbwa ine chimbwamupengo asi yadarika danho rokupengereka
Imbwa ine chimbwamupengo asi yadarika danho rokupengereka
ICD/CIM-10 A82 A82
DiseasesDB 11148
MedlinePlus 001334

Chimbwamupengo ivhairasi rechirwere chinokonzera kuzvimba kweuropi muvanhu nedzimwe mhuka dzine ropa rinodziya.[1] Zviratidzo zvokutanga zvinogona kusanganisira fivha uye kubayabaya panzvimbo inenge yapinda utachiona.[1] Zviratidzo izvi zvinoteverwa nechimwe chete kana zviviri zvezvinotevera: maitiro echisimba, kufarisa kusina muganhu, kutya mvura, kutadza kufambisa dzimwe nhengo dzemuviri, kuvhiringidzika, uye kufenda.[1] Kana zviratidzo zvaoneka, chimbwamupengo kakawanda kacho chinouraya.[1] Kubva panguva yokutapurirwa utachiona kusvika panotanga kuoneka zviratidzo, panowanzova nemwedzi mumwe chete kusvika kumitatu. Zvisinei, nguva iyi inogona kusiyana-siyana ichitangira pasi pevhiki rimwe chete kusvikira kugore kana kudarika.[1] Kureba kwenguva kunotsamira pakuti vhairasi racho rinofanira kufamba daro rakadini kuti risvike kumuzongoza uye uropi.[2]

Chinokonzera uye kuzivikanwa kwechirwere[chinja | edit source]

Chimbwamupengo chinotapurirwa kuvanhu chichibva kune dzimwe mhuka. Chimbwamupengo chinogona kutapurirwa kana mhuka inacho ikamara kana kuruma imwe kana munhu.[1] Rute rwemhuka ine utachiona runogonawo kutapurira chimbwamupengo kana rukaenda pamikana inobuda kunze kwomuviri yeimwe mhuka kana munhu.[1] Kakawanda, chimbwamupengo muvanhu chinobva pakurumwa nembwa.[1] Munyika dzine imbwa dzakawanda dzine chimbwamupengo, inopfuura 99% yechimbwamupengo inokonzerwa nokurumwa nembwa.[3] Munzvimbo dzeAmericas, kurumwa nechiremwaremwa ndiko kunonyanya kukonzera kutapukira kwechimbwamupengo, uye kutapukira kuri pasi pe5% kunokonzerwa nembwa.[1][3] Kashoma chaizvo kuti mbeva nezvimwe zvakada kudaro zvitapurirwe chimbwamupengo.[3] Vhairasi rechimbwamupengo rinofamba kuenda kuuropi richitevedza manevhi ekunze. Chirwere ichi chinogona chete kuzivikanwa kuti ndicho kana zviratidzo zvacho zvatanga kuoneka.[1]

Kudzivirira uye marapiro[chinja | edit source]

Mitemo yokuchengetedza mhuka uye zvirongwa zvokudzibaya ndizvo zvaderedza kutapukira kwechimbwamupengo kubva kumbwa munzvimbo dzakawanda dzepasi.[1] Zvinokurudzirwa kufanobaya mishonga yokudzivirira vaya vane mikana yakakura yekutapurirwa chirwere ichi. Vari pangozi yakanyanya vanosanganisira vanoshanda nezviremwaremwa kana vaya vanotora nguva yakareba vari munzvimbo dzenyika dzinonyanya kuva nechirwere chacho.[1] Kuvanhu vanenge vaita mukana wokubatwa nechimbwamupengo, mushonga wokudzivirira chimbwamupengo uye dzimwe nguva immunoglobulin yechimbwamupengo zvinogona kushanda pakudzivirira kuti vasabatwe nechirwere ndokunge varapiwa zviratidzo zvechimbwamupengo zvisati zvatanga.[1] Kugeza panenge parumwa kana kumarwa kwemaminitsi 15 nesipo nemvura, povidone iodine, kana mishonga yokuchenesa nayo zvinofungidzirwa kuti zvinogona kudzivirira kutapukira kwechimbwamupengo sezvo zvichigona kuuraya vhairasi racho.[1] Vashomanene chete ndivo vakapukunyuka utachiona hwechimbwamupengo pashure pokunge vatanga kuratidza zviratidzo zvokuva nacho. Ava vakawana marapiro akasimba anozivikanwa seMilwaukee protocol.[4]

Mushonga wekudzivirira[chinja | edit source]

Mushonga wekudzivirira chimbwamupengo mushonga wekudzivirira unoshandiswa kudzivirira chimbwamupengo.[5] Kune yakati wandei inoshandisika zvisina ngozi uye inoshanda. Inogona kushandiswa kudzivirira chimbwamupengo kubvira panguva munhu yaanenge asati awana utachiona kusvikira kunyange pashure pokunge arumwa nembwa kana chiremwaremwa. Pashure pokuwana mushonga katatu, kudzivirirwa kunobva kwaita kwenguva yakareba. Mishonga yacho inowanzoita zvokubayiwa nejekiseni muganda kana patsandanyama. Kana munhu ambova pangozi yokuwana chirwere, mushonga wokudzivirira wacho unowanzoshandiswa pamwechete neimmunoglobulin yechimbwamupengo. Zvinokurudzirwa kuti vaya vane mikana yakakura yekutapurirwa chirwere ichi vafanobayiwa mishonga yokudzivirira. Mishonga yokudzivirira inoshanda zvakanaka muvanhu nepadzimwe mhuka. Kubaya imbwa kunoshanda chaizvo pakudzivirira vanhu pachirwere.[5]

Nezvengozi dzemishonga[chinja | edit source]

Mamiriyoni evanhu pasi rose vakabayiwa mishonga yokudzivirira uye zvinofungidzirwa kuti izvi zvinoponesa upenyu hwevanhu vanodarika 250,000 pagore.[5] Inogona kushandisirwa vanhu vemazera ose. Vanhu vari pakati pe35 kusvika 45 muzana vanomboita kanguva kadiki kokuti pacho pabaiwa jekiseni panotsvuka uye kurwadza. Vanhu vari pakati pe5 kusvika 15 muzana vanogona kuita fivha, kutemwa nemusoro, kana kunzwa kuda kurutsa. Hapana pazvinonzi hazvichaite kushandisa mushonga unodzivirira chimbwamupengo kana munhu ava nacho. Mishonga yakawanda yokudzivirira haina thimerosal. Mishonga yokudzivirira inogadzirwa nenyama yemanevhi inoshandiswa munyika shoma, kunyanya Asia neLatin America, asi hainyanyoshandi uye ine zvakawanda zvainovhiringa muvanhu. Kushandiswa kwayo hakukurudzirwe neWorld Health Organization.[5]

Inohodhwa nemutengo uri pakati pe44 ne78 USD pakurapwa kwega kwega, kubva muna 2014.[6] MuUnited States kurapiwa pachishandiswa mushonga unodzivirira chimbwamupengo kunodarika 750 USD.[7]

Ruzivo nezvechirwere[chinja | edit source]

Chimbwamupengo chinouraya vanhu vanokwana 26,000 kusvika 55,000 pasi rose, pagore.[1][8] Inodarika 95% yenzufu idzi inoitika kuAsia nekuAfrica.[1] Chimbwamupengo chinowanika munyika dzinopfuura 150 mumakondinendi ose kunze kweAntarctica.[1] Vanhu vanodarika 3 bhiriyoni vanogara munzvimbo dzenyika munowanika chimbwamupengo.[1] Munzvimbo dzakawanda dzeEurope neAustralia, chimbwamupengo chinongowanika muzviremwaremwa chete.[9] Nyika dzakawanda dzakaita zvitsuwa hadzina chimbwamupengo zvachose.[10]

Kunowanika mamwe mashoko[chinja | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 "Rabies Fact Sheet N°99". World Health Organization. July 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  2. Cotran RS; Kumar V; Fausto N (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Elsevier/Saunders. p. 1375. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Tintinalli, Judith E. (2010). Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide (Emergency Medicine (Tintinalli)). McGraw-Hill. pp. Chapter 152. ISBN 0-07-148480-9. 
  4. Hemachudha T, Ugolini G, Wacharapluesadee S, Sungkarat W, Shuangshoti S, Laothamatas J (May 2013). "Human rabies: neuropathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.". Lancet neurology 12 (5): 498–513. PMID 23602163. doi:10.1016/s1474-4422(13)70038-3. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper". Weekly epidemiological record 32 (85): 309–320. Aug 6, 2010. 
  6. "Vaccine, Rabies". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  7. Shlim, David (June 30, 2015). "Perspectives: Intradermal Rabies Preexposure Immunization". Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  8. Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, Abraham J, Adair T, Aggarwal R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. PMID 23245604. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. 
  9. "Presence / absence of rabies in 2007". World Health Organization. 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  10. "Rabies-Free Countries and Political Units". CDC. Retrieved 1 March 2014.