Rutsvamhumburu

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Rutsvamhumburu kana kuti Holocaust kuChirungu raiva jambwa rokuurayiwa kukuru kwemaJudah munguva yakarwiwa Hondo yePasirose yeChipiri. Urwu rushambwa rwakatungamirwa naAdolf Hitler neBato reNazi avo vakakonzera kuurayiwa kwemaJudah vaigara muGermany nevamwe vaigara kune mamwe matunhu akanga akapambwa neGermany munguva iyi kuEurope. Nyanzvi dzenhoroondo dzine fungidziro yokuti maJudah vakaurayiwa nejambwa iri vakasvika mamiriyoni matanhatu (6m). Shoko rekuti Holocaust rinoreva burnt whole, saka kwedu kuChiShona kwanzi rutsvamhumburu kureva kuti muviri wemunhu waipiswa uri mhumburu kuita dota pasina chaisara.

Zvinonzi panguva iyi muEurope maiva nevagari verudzi rwechiJudah vanosvika mamiriyoni pfumbamwe (9m); muhondo iyi vakatsakatika vaiva zvikamu zviviri kubva muzvitatu (2/3) ivava vakaurayiwa nerutsvamhumburu. Vana vadiki vechiJudah vakafa murutsvamhumburu vanosvika miriyoni rimwe (1m), madzimai vakafa vanokwana mamiriyoni maviri (2m) uye varume vakaurayiwa mujambwa iri vanokwana mamiriyoni matatu (3m). Makamba nenzvimbo dzakashandiswa kutenhera, kumbunyikidza nokuuraya maJudah nevamwe vemarudzi akasiyana dzinonzi dzaisvika zviuru makumi mana (40,000).

Dzimwe nyanzvi dzenhoroondo dzinoti nhamba yevanhu vakafa nekupondwa kwemhomho dzevaRomani uye kuurayiwa kwevanhu vakaremara inofanirwa kunge ichiverengwawo sechikamu cherutsvamhumburu. Saka kune vamwe vadzidzi venhoroondo vanoshandisa irori shoko rekuti rutsvamhumburu kurevawo vanhu vasiri vechiJudah vakafa mukuponda murakatira kwose kwakaitwa neBato reNazi. Vamwe vakaurayiwa vanosanganisirisa: vasungwa vehondo vekuSoviet Union, uye vanhu vemumaruwa ekuPoland neSoviet Union pamwe nengochani. Nhamba dziri kumisikidzwa zvichibva pakuwa kwakaita Soviet Union dzinoti vanhu vemumaruwa pamwe nevasungwa vehondo vakapondwa neBato reNazi vanosvika mamiriyoni gumi nerimwe (11m).

Kune matanho emitemo akatanga kutemwa muGermany aya matanho achizoteverwa nekufurutswa kwevanhu pamwe nejambwa remharadzarudzi. Kwakatarwa mitemo yakatsaukana yaive nechinangwa chokubvisa maJudah kubva mumaruwa mavaigara; iyi inosanganisira mitemo yeNuremberg yegore 1935 nemimwe yakatarwa Hondo yePasirose yeChipiri isati yatanga. Hurumende yaHitler yakavaka kamba dzenhapwa (concentration camps) uko kwavharirwa vanhu vachishandiswa sevaranda kudzamara vafe nezvirwere kana kuneta. Mumatunhu akanga apambwa neGermany kumabvazuva kweEurope kwakaumbwa zvikwata zvechiwuto zvaita basa rokuponda mhomho dzemaJudah pamwe nevaipikisana nemawuto aya pane zvematongerwo enyika.

Mawuto eGermany mumatunhu avakanga vapamba akaisa mitemo yaimanikika vanhu verudzi rwechiJudah pamwe nevaRomani kuti vagare mumatangwena umo vanhu vaigara riri dzvikitsviki kunzvindana sematemba. Vanhu vaitorw kubva mutangwena umu vachiendeswa nechitima kuenda kukamba dzekuuraya (extermination camps) uko vaiurayiwa munhungu dzechefu yegasi ndokunge vararama rwendo rwechitima. Mapazi ose ehofisi dzeGermany akanga achibatirana mukushanda mabasa akasvitsa kuti kuve nebaradzarudzi.