Meningitis

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Meningitis chirwere chakaipisisa chine chekuita nekuzvimba kwenhengo dzinochengetedza dzakaputira uropi uye muzongoza, izvo zvinozivikanwa nezita rechirungu kuti meninges.[1] Zviratidzo zvinonyanyozivikanwa zvinoti fivha, kutemwa nemusoro uye kurwadziwa mutsipa. Zvimwe zviratidzo zvinosanganisira kukangaidzika kana kuti kudzungaira, kurutsa, uye kusagona kushivirira chiedza kana ruzha rwakanyanya. Kakawanda vana vadiki vanoita zviratidzo zvisina chirwere chaicho chazvo, zvakadai sekusatana kugumbuka, kuti rukutu, kana kusadya zvakanaka.[2] Kana paine tumapundu, izvi zvinogona kuratidza kuti chii chaicho chakonzera meningitis; semuenzaniso, meningitis inokonzerwa nebhakiteriya rinonzi meningococcal inogona kuvapo pamwe chete netumapundu tunoenderana naizvozvo.[1][3]

Kuzvimba kwacho kunogona kukonzerwa neutachiona, bhakiteria, kana tumwe tunhu tupenyu tudikidiki, uye mamwe madhiragi, asi kari kashoma kuti zviitike.[4] Meningitis inogona kuisa upenyu pangozi pamusana pekuzvimba kunoitikira pedyo neuropi kana nemuzongoza; saka kurwara kwakadai kuri pasi pezvinonzi zvinoda kurapwa nekukurumidza.[1][5] Kutorwa mvura yemumuzongoza uko kunonzi lumbar puncture kunotarisa kana kusatarisa meningitis.[2] Tsono inopfekerwa mumwena wemuzongoza kuti itore chitorwa chemvura dzecerebrospine (CSF), idzo dzinenge dzakaputira uropi uye muzongoza. Mvura dzacho dzinonzi CSF dzinoongororwa murabhoritari yezvekurapa.[5]

Dzimwe mhando dzemeningitis dzinodziviririka nekupa mishonga inodzivirira yemeningococcal, mahumunya, mabayo, neHib.[1] Zvinogonawo kubatsira kana vaya vane mikana yekubatira dzimwe mhando dzemeningitis vakapiwa mishonga inouraya utachiona.[2] Kurapa kwekutanga kunoitwa meningitis yakaipisisa kunosanganisira kukurumidza kupa mishonga inouraya mabhakiteriya uye dzimwe nguva mishonga inorwisa utachiona.[2][6] Mishonga inonzi corticosteroids inogonawo kushandiswa kudzivisa kukanganisika kwakaipisisa kunokonzerwa nekuzvimba kwakanyanya.[5][3] Meningitis inogona kuguma yakonzera matambudziko enguva refu akadai sehumatsi, pfari, mvura muuropi, kana kutadza kuziva, kunyanya kana ikasarapwa nekukurumidza.[1][3]

Muna 2013 meningitis yakaitika muvanhu vanoda kuita 16 miriyoni.[7] Izvi zvakaguma nenzufu 303 000 pasi rese– kuderera kubva panzufu 464 000 dzemuna 1990.[8] Kana pakava nekurapwa kwakakodzera kuuraiwa nemeningitis yebhakiteriya kunenge kuri pasi pe15%.[2] Gore negore pakati paDecember naJune, panova nematenda emeningitis yebhakiteriya mune imwe nzvimbo iri kusub-Saharan Africa inozivikanwa nekuti nharaunda yemeningitis.[9] Matenda madiki anogonawo kuitika mudzimwe nzvimbo dzepasi rese. Shoko rekuti meningitis rinobva pashoko reGreek rekuti μῆνιγξ méninx, kureva "chinoputira" uye panyaya dzekurapa mabhii ekupedzisira aro ekuti -itis, anoreva "kuzvimba".[10][11]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Sáez-Llorens X, McCracken GH (June 2003). "Bacterial meningitis in children". Lancet. 361 (9375): 2139–48. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13693-8. PMID 12826449.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Bacterial Meningitis". CDC. April 1, 2014. Retrieved 5 March2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 van de Beek D, de Gans J, Tunkel AR, Wijdicks EF (January 2006). "Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults". The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (1): 44–53. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052116. [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed#PubMed%20identifier PMID] 16394301.
  4. Ginsberg L (March 2004). "Difficult and recurrent meningitis" (PDF). Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 75 Suppl 1 (90001): i16–21. [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital%20object%20identifier doi]:10.1136/jnnp.2003.034272. [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed%20Central PMC] 1765649. [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed#PubMed%20identifier PMID] 14978146.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Tunkel AR; Hartman BJ; Kaplan SL; et al. (November 2004). "Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis" (PDF). Clinical Infectious Diseases. 39 (9): 1267–84. [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital%20object%20identifier doi]:10.1086/425368. [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed#PubMed%20identifier PMID] 15494903.
  6. "Viral Meningitis". CDC. November 26, 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  7. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, Collaborators (22 August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed#PubMed%20identifier PMID] 26063472.
  8. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital%20object%20identifier doi]:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed%20Central PMC] 4340604. PMID 25530442.
  9. "Meningococcal meningitis Fact sheet N°141". WHO. November 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  10. Mosby's pocket dictionary of medicine, nursing & health professions (6th. ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier. 2010. p. traumatic meningitis. ISBN 9780323066044.
  11. Liddell HG, Scott R (1940). "μήνιγξ". A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press.