Leishmaniasis

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Leishmaniasis
Tsanangudzo uye kumwe kunowanika mashoko
ICD/CIM-10 B55 B55
ICD/CIM-9 085 085
DiseasesDB 3266
MedlinePlus 001386

Leishmaniasis, inonyorwawo kuti leishmaniosis, chirwere chinokonzerwa neprotozoa parasaiti remhando yeLeishmania uye chinoparadzirwa munhu paanorumwa neimwe mhando yeumhutu hwemunzvimbo dzine jecha.[1] Chirwere ichi chinobudira munzvimbo nhatu: muganda, muganda nemikana inobuda kunze kwemuviri, kana leishmaniasis yemuchipfuva nemudumbu.[1] Kana riri ganda, panoita maronda, kana riri ganda nemikana inobuda kunze kwemuviri panoita maronda paganda, muromo uye mhino, nepo kana muri muchipfuva nemudumbu, panotanga maronda paganda, pozova nefivha, kushomeka kwemasero matsvuku eropa, uye kukura kwechiropa nechitaka.[1][2]

Utachiona muvanhu hunokonzerwa nemhando dzinodarika 20 dzeumhutu hwe"Leishmania".[1] Zvinowedzera dambudziko iri zvinosanganisira urombo, kushaika kwezvokudya zvinovaka muviri, kuparadzwa kwemasango, uye kuwedzera kwevanhu mumaguta vachibva mumamisha.[1] Mhando dzose dziri nhatu dzechirwere ichi dzinogona kuzivikanwa nokutarisa utachiona hwacho pachishandiswa maikorosikopu.[1] Uyewo, kana iri mhando yemuchipfuva nemudumbu, inogona kuzivikanwa nekuongororwa kweropa.[2]

Leishmaniasis inogona kudzivirirwa nekurara munhu akazvidzivirira nemambure akaiswa mishonga inouraya zvipembenene.[1] Dzimwe nzira dzinosanganisira kufirita kuti umhutu hwemujecha hufe uye kukurumidza kurapa varwere kuitira kuti utachiona husarambe huchipararira.[1] Marapirwo anozoshandiswa anotsamira pakuti chirwere chacho chawanika kupi, mhando yeumhutu hwe"Leishmania", uye mhando yeutachiona hwacho.[1] Mimwe yemishonga inogona kushandisirwa kurapa mhando yemuchipfuva nemudumbu inosanganisira liposomal amphotericin B,[3] mubatanidzwa wepentavalent antimonials neparomomycin,[3] uye miltefosine.[4] Kana chiri chirwere chemuganda, paromomycin, fluconazole, kana pentamidine inogona kushanda.[5]

Kutaura kuno, vanhu mamiriyoni 12 vatori neutachiona[6] munyika dzinokwana 98.[2] Vanokwana mamiriyoni maviri vakabatwa nahwo kekutanga[2] uye vari pakati pe20,000 ne50,000 vanofa gore negore.[1][7] Vanenge mamiriyoni 200 muAsia, Africa, South nemuCentral America, nekumaodzanyemba kweEurope vanogara munzvimbo dzinonyanya kuwanika chirwere ichi.[2][8] World Health Organization yakaita kuti mimwe yemishonga inorapa chirwere ichi iwanike nemitengo yakaderedzwa.[2] Chirwere chacho chinogonawo kuva pane dzimwe mhuka, dzinosanganisira imbwa uye mbeva nezvimwe zvakada kudaro.[1]

Kunowanika mamwe mashoko[chinja | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "Leishmaniasis Fact sheet N°375". World Health Organization. January 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Barrett, MP; Croft, SL (2012). "Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.". British medical bulletin 104: 175–96. PMC 3530408. PMID 23137768. doi:10.1093/bmb/lds031. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Sundar, S; Chakravarty, J (Jan 2013). "Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy.". Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy 14 (1): 53–63. PMID 23256501. doi:10.1517/14656566.2013.755515. 
  4. Dorlo, TP; Balasegaram, M; Beijnen, JH; de Vries, PJ (Nov 2012). "Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis.". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 67 (11): 2576–97. PMID 22833634. doi:10.1093/jac/dks275. 
  5. Minodier, P; Parola, P (May 2007). "Cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.". Travel medicine and infectious disease 5 (3): 150–8. PMID 17448941. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2006.09.004. 
  6. "Leishmaniasis Magnitude of the problem". World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  7. Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. PMID 23245604. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. 
  8. Ejazi, SA; Ali, N (Jan 2013). "Developments in diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis during the last decade and future prospects.". Expert review of anti-infective therapy 11 (1): 79–98. PMID 23428104. doi:10.1586/eri.12.148.