Keruro ye Chikriri

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Keruro ye Chikriri, unozivikanwa futi se Keruro ye Chislavhi, is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic, Turkic, Mongolic, Uralic, Caucasian and Iranic-speaking countries in Southeastern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Asia, and East Asia.

As of 2019, around 250 million people in Eurasia use Cyrillic as the official script for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the European Union, following the Latin and Greek alphabets.

Bumbiro re Mabhi[chinja | edit source]

Cyrillic script spread throughout the East Slavic and some South Slavic territories, being adopted for writing local languages, such as Old East Slavic. Its adaptation to local languages produced a number of Cyrillic alphabets, discussed below.

Bumbiro re Mabhi e Chikriri Ekare
А Б В Г Д Е Ж И І К Л М Н О П Р С Т ОѴ Ф
Х Ѡ Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ ЪІ Ь Ѣ Ѥ Ю Ѫ Ѭ Ѧ Ѩ Ѯ Ѱ Ѳ Ѵ Ҁ

Capital and lowercase letters were not distinguished in old manuscripts. A page from the Church Slavonic Grammar of Meletius Smotrytsky (1619)

Yeri (Ы) was originally a ligature of Yer and I (Ъ + І = Ы). Iotation was indicated by ligatures formed with the letter І: Ꙗ (not an ancestor of modern Ya, Я, which is derived from Ѧ), Ѥ, Ю (ligature of І and ОУ), Ѩ, Ѭ. Sometimes different letters were used interchangeably, for example И = І = Ї, as were typographical variants like О = Ѻ. There were also commonly used ligatures like ѠТ = Ѿ.

The letters also had numeric values, based not on Cyrillic alphabetical order, but inherited from the letters' Greek ancestors.

Manumeri eChikriri
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
А В Г Д Є (Е) Ѕ (Ꙃ, Ꙅ) З (Ꙁ) И Ѳ
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
І (Ї) К Л М Н Ѯ (Ч) Ѻ (О) П Ч (Ҁ)
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Р С Т Ѵ (Ѵ, Оу, Ꙋ) Ф Х Ѱ Ѡ (Ѿ, Ꙍ) Ц (Ѧ)

The early Cyrillic alphabet is difficult to represent on computers. Many of the letterforms differed from those of modern Cyrillic, varied a great deal in manuscripts, and changed over time. Few fonts include glyphs sufficient to reproduce the alphabet. In accordance with Unicode policy, the standard does not include letterform variations or ligatures found in manuscript sources unless they can be shown to conform to the Unicode definition of a character.

The Unicode 5.1 standard, released on 4 April 2008, greatly improves computer support for the early Cyrillic and the modern Church Slavonic language. In Microsoft Windows, the Segoe UI user interface font is notable for having complete support for the archaic Cyrillic letters since Windows 8.[citation needed

Mabhii eChikriri eChislavhi
А
A
А́
A with acute
А̀
A with grave
А̄
A with macron
Ӓ
A with diaeresis
Б
Be
В
Ve
Г
Ge (Ghe)
Ґ
Ghe upturn
Д
De
Ђ
Dje
Ѓ
Gje
Е
Ye
Е́
Ye with acute
Ѐ
Ye with grave
Е̄
Ye with macron
Ё
Yo
Є
Ukrainian Ye
Ж
Zhe
З
Ze
З́
Zje
Ѕ
Dze
И
I
І
Dotted I
Ї
Yi
И́
I with acute
Ѝ
I with grave
Ӣ
I with macron
Й
Short I
Ј
Je
К
Ka
Л
El
Љ
Lje
М
Em
Н
En
Њ
Nje
О
O
О́
O with acute
О̀
O with grave
О̄
O with macron
П
Pe
Р
Er
С
Es
С́
Sje
Т
Te
Ћ
Tje
Ќ
Kje
У
U
У́
U with acute
Ӯ
U with macron
Ў
Short U
Ф
Ef
Х
Kha
Ц
Tse
Ч
Che
Џ
Dzhe
Ш
Sha
Щ
Shcha
Ъ
Hard sign (Yer)
Ы
Yery
Ь
Soft sign (Yeri)
Э
E
Ю
Yu
Я
Ya
Muenzaniso e mabhii asiri eChikriri cheChislavhi (ringai Udorongodzwa hwe Mabhii e Chikriri muone zvimwe)
Ӑ
A with
breve
Ә
Schwa
Ӕ
Ae
Ғ
Ghayn
Ҕ
Ge with
middle hook
Ӻ
Ghayn with
hook
Ӷ
Ge with
descender
Ӂ
Zhe with
breve
Ӝ
Zhe with
diaeresis
Ӡ
Abkhazian
Dze
Ҡ
Bashkir Qa
Ҟ
Ka with
stroke
Ӊ
En with
tail
Ң
En with
descender
Ӈ
En with
hook
Ҥ
En-ghe
Ө
Oe
Ҩ
O-hook
Ҏ
Er with
tick
Ҫ
The
У̃
U with
tilde
Ӱ
U with
diaeresis
Ӳ
U with
double acute
Ү
Ue
Ұ
Kazah Short U
Ҳ
Kha with
descender
Ӽ
Kha with
hook
Ӿ
Kha with
stroke
Һ
Shha (He)
Ҵ
Te Tse
Ҷ
Che with
descender
Ӌ
Khakassian
Che
Ҹ
Che with
vertical stroke
Ҽ
Abkhazian
Che
Ҍ
Semisoft
sign
Ӏ
Palochka
Mabhii e Chikriri aishandiswa kudhara

A iotified
Ѥ
E iotified
Ѧ
Yus small
Ѫ
Yus big
Ѩ
Yus small iotified
Ѭ
Yus big iotified
Ѯ
Ksi
Ѱ
Psi

Yn
Ѳ
Fita
Ѵ
Izhitsa
Ѷ
Izhitsa okovy
Ҁ
Koppa
ОУ
Uk
Ѡ
Omega
Ѿ
Ot
Ѣ
Yat