Hepatitis B

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Hepatitis B chirwere chinotapukira chinokonzerwa nevhairasi reHepatitis B (HBV) iro rinokanganisa chiropa. Chinogona kukonzera hwese huri huviri, utachiona hwenguva refu uye hwakaipisisa. Vakawanda pavanotanga kubatira utachiona uhwu vanenge vasina zviratidzo zvekuvapo kwacho. Vamwe vanorwariswa ipapo ipapo vachibva vatanga kurutsa, kuita ganda reyero, kunzwa kuneta, weti yakasviba uye kurwadziwa mudumbu.[1] Kakawanda zviratidzo izvi zvinogara kwemavhiki mashoma uye kashoma kuti kubatira utachiona kwekutanga kugume nekufa.[1][2] Zvingatora mazuva 30 kusvika 180 kuti zviratidzo zvitange kuoneka.[1] Kana vari vaya vanobatira utachiona hwacho panguva yekuzvarwa, 90% ndiyo inoguma yava nehepatitis B yenguva refu ukuwo vasingasviki 10% yevaya vanobatira utachiona hwacho pashure pemakore mashanu ichiguma yavawo nehepatitis B yenguva refu.[3] Vakawanda vevane chirwere chenguva refu vanenge vasina zviratidzo; zvisinei, vanogona kugumisira vava necirrhosis uye kenza yechiropa.[4] Migumisiro iyi ndiyo inoguma nekufa kwe15 kusvika 25% yevaya vane chirwere chenguva refu.[1]

Utachiona uhwu hunotapukira kana munhu akabata kana kuguma ropa kana mvura dzemumuviri dzine utachiona. Kubatira utachiona panguva yekuzvarwa kana kuti kubva kuvamwe vanhu mwana paanenge achiri mudiki ndiyo nzira inowanzobatirwa nayo hepatitis B munzvimbo dzinonyanyowanika chirwere chacho. Munzvimbo dzisingawanzowaniki chirwere ichi, kutapukira kwacho kunowanzobva pakushandisa madhiragi anoita zvekubayirwa mutsinga uye pakuita bonde.[1] Zvimwewo zvinoparira kutapukira zvinosanganisira: kushanda munzvimbo dzinorapirwa vanhu, kuwedzerwa ropa, kuchenesa ropa kunonzi dialysis, kugara nemunhu ane utachiona, kushanyira nyika dzakawanda utachiona hwacho, uye kugara munzvimbo dzinogarwa nevakawanda.[1][3] Kuzvinyora-nyora muviri uye marapiro ekubaya muviri netsono akaita kuti kubatira chirwere ichi kuwedzere kumakore ekuma1980; zvisinei, izvi zvaderera pamusana pekuwedzera kwakaita nzira dzekuchenesa nadzo midziyo inoshandiswa pakuita izvi.[5] Utachiona hwehepatitis B haugoni kuparadzirwa nekubatana maoko, kushandisa zvekudya nazvo zvimwe chete, kukisana, kumbundirana, kukosora, kuhetsura, kana kuyamwa.[3] Zvinogona kuonekwa kuti munhu ava nechirwere chacho pashure pemazuva 30 kusvika 60 kubva paanochibatira. Zvinozonzi munhu ane chirwere ichi kana aongororwa ropa pachitsvakwa zvidimbu zveutachiona hwacho uye pachitsvagwa masoja emuviri anenge achihurwisa.[1] Utachiona uhwu ndehumwe hweutachiona hushanu hwehepatitis hunozivikanwa: A, B, C, D, neE.

Kupararira kweutachiona kwave kuchidzivisika zvichibva pakushandisa mishonga inodzivirira kwakatanga muna 1982.[6][1] World Health Organization inokurudzira kupa mushonga unodzivirira pazuva rekutanga rekuzvarwa kana zvichiita. Kudzokorora mushonga wacho kaviri kana katatu kunozodiwa pave paya kuitira kuti munhu anyatsodzivirirwa zvakazara. Mushonga uyu unoshanda 95% yenguva.[1] Kubvira muna 2006, nyika dzinoda kuita 180 dzakapa mushonga uyu sechikamu chezvirongwa zvenyika.[7] Zvinokurudzirwawo kuti ropa rese riongororwe kuti harina hepatitis B here risati raiswa mumunhu uye kuti makondomu ashandiswe pakudzivirira kubatira utachiona. Panotanga kubatira munhu utachiona, kutarisirwa kwake kunotsamira pazviratidzo zvaanenge aita. Kana vari vaya vanoguva vava nechirwere chenguva refu, mishonga inorwisa utachiona yakadai setenofovir kana interferon ingagona kubatsira, zvisinei mishonga iyi inodhura. Panyaya yecirrhosis, dzimwe nguva munhu anogona kuisirwa chimwe chiropa.[1]

Vanhu vanoda kukwana chetatu chevagari vepasi rese vane nguva yavakambobatwa neutachiona uhwu muupenyu, kusanganisira 240 miriyoni kusvika ku350 miriyoni yeavo vane utachiona hwenguva yakareba.[8][1] Vanhu vanodarika 750 000 vanofa nehepatitis B gore rega rega.[1] Chirwere ichi chazova chakakurumbira muEast Asia nemusub-Saharan Africa umo mune vanhu vakuru vari pakati pe5 ne10% vane chirwere chenguva refu. Uwandu hwekubatira utachiona hwacho huri pasi pe1% kuEurope nekuNorth America.[1] Pakutanga chirwere chacho chainzi hepatitis yemuseramu iyo inowanika muropa.[9] Tsvakurudzo dziri kutarisa kana pachigona kugadzirwa zvekudya zvinenge zviine mishonga inodzivirira inonzi HBV.[10] Chirwere ichi chinogona kubatawo tsoko huru.[11]


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 "Hepatitis B Fact sheet N°204". who.int. July 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.[1]
  2. Raphael Rubin; David S. Strayer (2008). Rubin's Pathology : clinicopathologic foundations of medicine ; [includes access to online text, cases, images, and audio review questions!] (5th ed.). Philadelphia [u.a.]: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 638. ISBN 9780781795166.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public — Transmission". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  4. Chang MH (June 2007). "Hepatitis B virus infection". Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 12 (3): 160–167. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2007.01.013. PMID 17336170.
  5. Thomas HC (2013). Viral Hepatitis (4th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 83. ISBN 9781118637302.
  6. Pungpapong S, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ (2007). "Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: an Update for Clinicians". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82 (8): 967–975. doi:10.4065/82.8.967. PMID 17673066.
  7. Williams R (2006). "Global challenges in liver disease". Hepatology. 44 (3): 521–526. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687.
  8. Schilsky ML (2013). "Hepatitis B "360"". Transplantation Proceedings. 45 (3): 982–985. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.02.099. PMID 23622604.
  9. Barker LF, Shulman NR, Murray R, Hirschman RJ, Ratner F, Diefenbach WC, Geller HM (1996). "Transmission of serum hepatitis. 1970". Journal of the American Medical Association. 276 (10): 841–844. doi:10.1001/jama.276.10.841. PMID 8769597.
  10. Thomas, Bruce (2002). Production of Therapeutic Proteins in Plants. p. 4. ISBN 9781601072542. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  11. Plotkin, [edited by] Stanley A.; Orenstein,, Walter A.; Offit, Paul A. (2013). Vaccines (6th. ed.). [Edinburgh]: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 208. ISBN 9781455700905.