Hepatitis A

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Hepatitis A (kare yaimbonzi hepatitis inotapukira) chirwere chakaipisisa uye chirwere chinotapukira chechiropa chinokonzerwa neutachiona hwehepatitis A (HAV).[1] Kana muri muvana, kakawanda kacho panenge pasina zviratidzo kana kuti zvinenge zviri zvidikidiki.[2] kureba kwenguva inobvira pakutapurirwa kusvika pakuoneka kwezviratidzo, kana muri muvaya vanooneka zviratidzo zvacho, inguva iri pakati pemavhiki maviri kusvika kumatanhatu.[3] Kana paine zviratidzo, izvo zvinowanzogara kwemavhiki 8 uye zvingasanganisira: kunzwa kuda kurutsa, kurutsa, manyoka, ganda reyero, fivha, uye kurwadziwa mudumbu.[2] Mumwedzi 6 pashure pekutapurirwa kwekutanga kweutachiona, inoda kuita 10–15% yevanhu inowana zvakare zviratidzo zvayakambova nazvo.[2] Kashoma kuti pave nekutadza kushanda kwechiropa kwakaipisisa asi izvi zvinowanzoitika mune vaya vakwegura.[2]

Hepatitis A inowanzoparadzirwa nekudya kana kunwa zvekudya kana kunwa mvura inenge yapinda utachiona hunenge hwabva mutsvina.[2] Zvinodyiwa zvinobva mugungwa izvo zvinonzi shellfish ndizvo zvinowanzoparira chirwere ichi kana zvikasabikwa zvakakwana.[4] Inogonawo kuparadzirwa nekuva pedyo nemunhu ane utachiona.[2] Kunyange zvazvo kakawanda kacho vana vanenge vatapukirwa neutachiona hwacho vasingaratidzi zviratidzo, vanenge vachigona kutapurira vamwe.[2] Munhu paanongotapukirwa kamwe chete, haazotapukirwi zvakare kweupenyu hwese.[5] Kuti zvinzi munhu ane chirwere ichi panodiwa kuongororwa ropa sezvo zviratidzo zvacho zvakafanana nezvezvimwe zvirwere zvakawanda.[2] Utachiona uhwu ndehumwe hweutachiona hushanu hwehepatitis hunozivikanwa: A, B, C, D, and E.

Mushonga unodzivirira wehepatitis A unoshanda chaizvo pakudzivirira.[2][6] Dzimwe nyika dzinokurudzira kuti ugare uchipiwa vana nevaya vari pangozi yekutapurirwa utachiona hwacho vanenge vasina kumbobvira vapiwa mushonga unodzivirira.[2][7] Zvinoita sekuti unoshanda kweupenyu hwese.[2] Dzimwe nzira dzekuzvidzivirira nadzo dzinosanganisira kugeza maoko uye kubika zvekudya nemazvo.[2] Hapana marapiro chaiwo, asi zvinokurudzirwa kuti munhu azorore uye apiwe mishonga inobatsira kudzivisa kunzwa kuda kurutsa uye manyoka sezvinenge zvichidiwa.[2] Kakawanda kutapurirwa utachiona kunozongopera zvachose uye pasina chirwere chinoenderera mberi chechiropa.[2] Kana zvikaitika kuti pava nekutadza kushanda kwechiropa kwakaipisisa, izvi zvinorapwa nekuisirwa chimwe chiropa.[2]

Pasi rese panova nekutapurirwa utachiona uhwu kunenge kuine zviratidzo kunoda kuita 1.5 miriyoni gore negore[2] nepo kutapurirwa kwese zvako kuchida kusvika kumakumi emamiriyoni.[8] Chirwere ichi chakanyanya chaizvo munzvimbo dzepasi rese dzisina utsanana uye dzisina mvura yakachena yakakwana.[7] Munyika dzichiri kubudirira inenge 90% yevana inenge yatapurirwa utachiona pavanozosvitsa makore 10 zvichireva kuti vanenge vasisabatiri utachiona hwacho pavanenge vava vanhu vakuru. Chirwere chacho chinowanzoitika mumatenda munyika dzakati budirirei umo vana vanenge vasina kumbobatwa nechirwere chacho vachiri vadiki uye munenge musina zvirongwa zvekupa vanhu vese mishonga inodzivirira.[7] Muna 2010, hepatitis A yakaipisisa yakaguma nenzufu dzinokwana 102 000.[9] Zuva rekucherechedza chirwere ichi iro rinonzi World Hepatitis Day rinochengetwa gore negore pana July 28 kuti vanhu vazive nezveutachiona hwehepatitis.[7]

  1. Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 541–4. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 Matheny, SC; Kingery, JE (1 December 2012). "Hepatitis A." Am Fam Physician. 86 (11): 1027–34, quiz 1010–2. PMID 23198670.
  3. "Hepatitis A vaccine in the last-minute traveler". Am. J. Med. 118 (Suppl 10A): 58S–62S. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.07.018. PMID 16271543.
  4. Bellou, M.; Kokkinos, P.; Vantarakis, A. (March 2013). "Shellfish-borne viral outbreaks: a systematic review". Food Environ Virol. 5 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1007/s12560-012-9097-6. PMID 23412719.
  5. The Encyclopedia of Hepatitis and Other Liver Diseases. Infobase. 2006. p. 105. ISBN 9780816069903.
  6. Irving, GJ.; Holden, J.; Yang, R.; Pope, D. (2012). "Hepatitis A immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis A.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 7: CD009051. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009051.pub2. PMID 22786522.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Hepatitis A Fact sheet N°328". World Health Organization. July 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  8. Wasley, A; Fiore, A; Bell, BP (2006). "Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination". Epidemiol Rev. 28: 101–11. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxj012. PMID 16775039.
  9. Lozano, R; Naghavi, M; Foreman, K; Lim, S; Shibuya, K; Aboyans, V; Abraham, J; Adair, T; Aggarwal, R,; Ahn, SY; et al. (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.