Gwirikwiti

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Gwirikwiti, irowo rinozivikanwa nekuti morbilli, rubeola, kana kuti gwirikwiti dzvuku, utachiona hunotapukira chaizvo hunokonzerwa nevhairasi rinonzi measles.[1][2] Zviratidzo zvekutanga zvinowanzosanganisira fivha, inowanzodarika 40 °C (104.0 °F), kukosora, kuyerera dzihwa, uye maziso akatsvuka.[1][3] Pashure pemazuva maviri kana matatu kubva panotanga zviratidzo zvacho, mumukanwa munooneka tumapundu tudiki tuchena, tunozivikanwa nekuti Koplik's spots. Tumapundu tutsvuku tusina kukura utwo twunowanzotanga pachiso twobva twapararira nemuviri wese twunowanzotanga pashure pemazuva matatu kusvika kumashanu kubva panotanga kuoneka zviratidzo.[3] Zviratidzo zvinowanzotanga kuoneka mazuva 10–12 pashure pekunge munhu ava pedyo nemunhu ane chirwere chacho, uye zvinogara kwemazuva 7–10.[4][5] Zvinhu zvinozowedzera kuipira inenge 30% uye zvingasanganisira kuita manyoka, upofu, kuzvimba kweuropi, uye mabayo nezvimwewo.[4][6] Rubella (gwirikwiti rekuGerman) rakasiyana nechirwere chinonzi roseola.[7]

Gwirikwiti chirwere chinofamba nemumhepo icho chinopararira zviri nyore mukukosora nemukuhetsura kwevane utachiona hwacho. Chinogonawo kupararira munhu paanobata kana kuguma mate kana madziwa zvemunhu anacho.[4] Vanhu vasina kudzivirirwa vanokwana 9 pa10 vega vega vanobatira chirwere chacho kana vachigara nemunhu anacho. Vanhu vanotapurira vamwe chirwere ichi mumazuva mana tumapundu tusati twaoneka pavari uye mumazuva mana pashure pekunge twatanga kuoneka.[6] Kakawanda vanhu vanowana chirwere ichi kamwe chete.[4] Zvakakosha kuti vanenge vafungirwa kuti vane chirwere ichi vaongororwe kuitira kuti chisapararire kuvanhu vakawanda.[6]

Mushonga wekudzivirira gwirikwiti unoshanda chaizvo pakuridzivirira. Kudzivirira kwakaguma nekuderedzwa ne75% kwenzufu dzinoparirwa negwirikwiti pakati pa2000 na2013, vana vanenge 85% zvavari kudzivirirwa pasi rese. Hapana marapiro chaiwo aripo. Zvisinei, kutarisirwa kwakanaka kunogona kuvandudza utano.[4] Izvi zvingasanganisira kupa mvura yekunwa ine shuga nemunyu (inoti tapirei uye ine munyu), zvekudya zvine utano, uye mishonga inobatsira kurapa fivha.[4][5] Mishonga inouraya bhakiteriya inogona kushandiswa kana pakava neutachiona hwacho hwakadai sehwemabayo. Munyika dzichiri kubudirira, zvinokurudzirwawo kutora zvinowedzera Vhitamini A.[4]

Gwirikwiti rinokanganisa vanhu vanoda kuita 20 miriyoni pagore,[1] kunyanya munzvimbo dzichiri kubudirira dzeAfrica neAsia.[4] Ndiro rinokonzera nzufu dzakawanda kudarika zvirwere zvese zvinogona kudzivirirwa nemishonga.[8] Rakakonzera nzufu dzinoda kuita 96 000 muna 2013 kubva pa545 000 muna 1990.[9] Muna 1980, chirwere ichi chinofungidzirwa kuti chakakonzera nzufu 2.6 miriyoni pagore.[4] Kudzivirira chirwere ichi kusati kwatanga muUnited States, gore negore paiva nekuoneka kwechirwere ichi kuri pakati pemamiriyoni matatu nemana.[6] Vakawanda vevanotapurirwa chirwere ichi uye vanofa nacho vanenge vaine makore ari pasi pemashanu.[4] Kakawanda ngozi yekuurayiwa nechirwere ichi i0.2%,[6] asi inogona kukwira kusvika pa10% muvaya vasina zvekudya zvinovaka muviri.[4] Hazvidavirwi kuti chirwere ichi chinobata mhuka.[4]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Caserta, MT, ed. (September 2013). "Measles". Merck Manual Professional. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  2. "Measles (Red Measles, Rubeola)". http://www.health.gov.sk.ca/. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Measles (Rubeola) Signs and Symptoms". cdc.gov. November 3, 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 "Measles Fact sheet N°286". who.int. November 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Conn's Current Therapy 2015: Expert Consult - Online. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2014. p. 153. ISBN 9780323319560.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Atkinson, William (2011). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 301–323. ISBN 9780983263135. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  7. Marx, John A. (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine : concepts and clinical practice (7th. ed.). Philadelphia: Mosby/Elsevier. p. 1541. ISBN 9780323054720.
  8. Kabra, SK; Lodhra, R (14 August 2013). "Antibiotics for preventing complications in children with measles". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8: CD001477. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001477.pub4. PMID 23943263.
  9. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442.