Chikosoro chinonzi "Whooping cough"

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Pertussis, iyo inozivikanwa sechikosoro chinonzi pachirungu “whooping cough” kana kuti chikosoro chemazuva 100, chirwere chinokonzerwa nebhakiteriya chinotapukira zvakanyanya.[1][2] Kakawanda zviratidzo zvekutanga zvakafanana nezvefuruu inoparira kuyerera mumhino, fivha uye kakukosora. Izvi zvinobva zvazoteverwa nemavhiki enguva dzekukosora kwakanyanya. Kana nguva yekukosora yapera kunozouya kakufema kekuti "hupu" kanogona kunzwika munhu wacho paanenge achifema.[2] Kukosora uku kunogona kugara kwenguva inodarika mazuva zana kana mavhiki gumi.[3] Munhu anogona kukosora zvakasimba zvekuti anorutsa, kutyoka mbabvu, kana kuneta zvakanyanya kubva pakukosora kwacho.[2][4] Vana vane mwedzi iri pasi pegore vanogona kukosora zvishoma kana kusatombokosora asi voita nguva dzavanenge vasingafemi.[2] Nguva iri pakati pekutapurirwa utachiona kusvika pakuoneka kwezviratidzo inowanzova mazuva 7 kusvika ku10.[5] Chirwere ichi chinogona kuitika muvanhu vakapiwa mushonga unodzivirira asi kakawanda kacho zviratidzo zvacho zvinenge zvisina kunyanya.[2]

Pertussis inokonzerwa nebhakiteriya rinonzi Bordetella pertussis. Ichi chirwere chinofamba nemumhepo icho chinopararira zviri nyore mukukosora nemukuhetsura kwemunhu ane utachiona hwacho.[6] Vanhu vanotapurira vamwe kubvira panguva inotanga kuonekwa zviratidzo kusvikira kumavhiki anoda kuita matatu ekukosora kwemunhu. Vaya vanenge varapwa nemishonga inouraya utachiona vanenge vasisiri kutapurira vamwe pashure pemazuva mashanu.[7] Kuongororwa chirwere ichi kunoitwa nekutora chitorwa chinobva nechemukati memhino kana kuti mehuro. Chitorwa ichi ndicho chinozotariswa pachiongororwa maitiro evanhu kureva culture kana kuti pachiongororwa maitiro echirwere kana kuti polymerase chain reaction.[8]

Kudzivirira chirwere ichi kunowanzoitwa nekupa mushonga unodzivirira kureva mushonga unodzivirira pertussis.[9] Kudzivirira kwekutanga kunokurudzirwa pakati pemavhiki 6 kusvika ku8 ekuzvarwa, mwana achipiwa mishonga kanokwana kana mumakore maviri ake ekutanga.[10] Mushonga unodzivirira wacho unopera simba nekufamba kwenguva pachikurudzirwa kuti vana vati kurei uye vanhu vakuru vapiwe zvakare mishonga yacho.[11] Mishonga inouraya utachiona inogona kushandiswa kudzivirira chirwere kune vaya vanenge vari pangozi yekuchitapurirwa uye vanenge vari pangozi yekubata chirwere chakaipisisa.[12] Kune vaya vane chirwere chacho mishonga inouraya utachiona inoshanda kana ikatanga kutorwa mumavhiki matatu ekutanga kubva panoonekwa zviratidzo, asi mishonga iyi haina zvainobatsira muvakawanda. Kana vari vana vane mwedzi isingasviki gore uye vaya vane pamuviri, zvinokurudzirwa kuti vatore mishonga yacho mumavhiki 6 kubva panoonekwa zviratidzo. Mishonga inouraya utachiona inosanganisira erythromycin, azithromycin, kana trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.[7] Hapana umboo hunogutsa hunoratidza kuti mishonga inonyatsoshanda zvakanaka kurapa chikosoro ichi.[13] Vana vakawanda avo vanenge vaine mwedzi isingasviki gore vanotofanira kurapirwa muchipatara.[2]

Zvinofungidzirwa kuti pertussis inobata vanhu 16 miriyoni pasi rese pagore.[13] Kutapukirwa kwakawanda kunoitika munyika dzichiri kubudirira uye vanhu vemazera ese vanogona kutapukirwa.[9][13] Muna 2013 chirwere chacho chakaguma nenzufu 61 000 – kuderera kubva pa138 000 dzemuna 1990.[14] Vana vane utachiona vanoda kuita 2% avo vane mwedzi isingasviki gore vanofa.[4] Matenda echirwere ichi akatanga kuoneka kumakore ekuma 1500. Bhakiteriya rinokonzera utachiona hwacho rakazivikanwa muna 1906. Mushonga unodzivirira wakatanga kuwanika kuma1940.[5]

  1. Carbonetti NH (June 2007). "Immunomodulation in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis infection and disease". Curr Opin Pharmacol. 7 (3): 272–8. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2006.12.004. PMID 17418639.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Signs & Symptoms". May 22, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  3. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Fast Facts". cdc.gov. February 13, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Atkinson, William (May 2012). Pertussis Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 215–230. ISBN 9780983263135.
  6. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Causes & Transmission". cdc.gov. September 4, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Treatment". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  8. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Specimen Collection". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Heininger U (February 2010). "Update on pertussis in children". Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 8 (2): 163–73. doi:10.1586/eri.09.124. PMID 20109046.
  10. "Revised guidance on the choice of pertussis vaccines: July 2014" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 89 (30): 337–40. Jul 2014. PMID 25072068.
  11. "Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper". Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 85 (40): 385–400. Oct 1, 2010. PMID 20939150.
  12. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Prevention". cdc.gov. October 10, 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Wang, K; Bettiol, S; Thompson, MJ; Roberts, NW; Perera, R; Heneghan, CJ; Harnden, A (22 September 2014). "Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD003257. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003257.pub5. PMID 25243777.
  14. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442.